Welcome to ATU
Career Portal

What will you like to do?

Internship and job opportunities coming soon.

Access Programmmes for your Career Development

Explore Careers and Industries for Job and Innovation Opportunities

If you have your CV ready, you can upload it here to discover career paths a magical Genie recommends that best suit your profile.

If you don’t have a CV yet, you can explore careers and industries for top skills, qualifications, and tips for entry and leading organisations that provide career opportunities. You can also connect with alumni in industries of interest to build your professional network (having a LinkedIn account is required).

Information Technology

Industrials and Manufacturing


Fashion and Lifestyle

Extractives and

Health and Medical Sciences

Hospitality and Tourism

Guides and Templates to Get a Job or Start a Business

Access guides for getting a job or starting a business, and templates that you can customise for your job application or business.

Connect with the ATU Career Centre


Office Location
NG Block Room 1

Working Hours
Monday – Friday 8:30 am – 4:30 pm

Salamatu Mahamah Braimah
Regina Acquah-Bentil


Overview of the Finance Industry

Finance is not just a department. It is a group of professions with competencies—ranging from accounting, financial and investment planning, banking, insurance—to business financial management. Finance career opportunities are available across all industries and is a required skill in every organisation in the private, public sector and non-governmental organisations. 

The job functions of finance professionals include record-keeping, expense analysis, making investment decisions. And also the strategic planning of the future of an organisation. Finance professionals serve individuals, businesses and a wide range of organisations as in-house staff, auditors, or consultants. 

Pathways in this career cluster include:

  • Accounting
  • Financial Planning 
  • Business/Corporate finance
  • General Banking (Corporate and Commercial)
  • Investment Banking
  • Wealth management
  • Insurance services

The highest paying jobs in a finance career cluster are in investment banking, corporate banking, asset management, financial advisory and brokerage, and private equity.

The most relevant employability skills are:

  • Communication
  • Analysis
  • Planning & Organisation
  • Networking & Teamwork
  • Numeracy & Financial Literacy
  • Professionalism & Industry Awareness
  • Digital Proficiency

You do not need a degree in insurance or finance to work in the industry. However, a first or second degree in the field can provide a competitive advantage for specialisation, especially in the technical areas of the industry. These degrees include Insurance studies, Actuarial science, Accounting and Insurance, Finance and Insurance, Risk Management, Financial and Insurance Mathematics, and Financial Engineering.

Industry bodies and National Chartered Insurance Institutes offer several certificate programmes and diplomas in insurance. In addition, numerous training also exists for specialised fields such as brokerage, underwriting and risk modelling.


The banking is open to graduates with financial and non-financial degrees. In addition to roles in finance, banks employ graduates with the aptitude and soft skills for jobs in Customer Support, Information Technology, Business Development, Marketing and Human Resources. Banking-related degrees include Banking and Finance, Accounting, Business Administration, Economics, and Agricultural Economics.

Professional qualifications relevant to the industry; are provided by professional bodies such as the Chartered Institute of Bankers of Nigeria(CIBN), the Institute of Chartered Accountants of Nigeria (ICAN), Association of Chartered Certified Accountants (ACCA), and the Association of National Accountants of Nigeria (ANAN). 

Professional certifications relevant to the industry include Chartered Financial Analysts (CFA), Certified Financial Planner (CFP), Financial Risk Manager (FRM), Chartered Alternative Investment Analyst (CAIA), Certified Public Accountant (CPA), Certified Management Accountant, Chartered Mutual Fund Counselor (CMFC), Financial Modeling & Valuation Analyst (FMVA), 

An MBA programme with a finance specialisation is valuable in the industry.

The easiest path to entering the insurance industry is becoming an insurance agent. It is usually a commission-based job and provides sales experience in the insurance industry. In addition, several insurance companies offer graduate trainee programmes and internship opportunities. 

Relationships and trust are the most valuable commodity in developing markets where business insurance is more common. Working with an insurance brokerage provides a vast opportunity to build relationships across insurance service providers. In addition, post-graduate degrees and professional education can give a leeway into roles such as actuary science and loss adjustment. Some insurance brokerage firms also consistently have openings. Still, the elite firms in developed markets may require graduates with experience working in the industry.

Insurance companies have become more open to InsurTech solutions. These solutions provide advisory, comparison, matching for consumers, and automated claims filing while giving new risk modelling approaches for insurance firms.

Finally, when interviewing for an insurance position, one must demonstrate that they possess the necessary abilities and experience to be a suitable fit for the job. For example, employers looking to fill insurance agent positions want someone committed to finding new customers. They are also seeking someone who knows how to provide excellent customer service.

The top banks run annual graduate recruitment programmes promoted on their social media pages. The application process can take various forms, taking an online quiz or a shortlist of candidates to write aptitude tests through which they select for interviews. Additionally, some banks require selected candidates to meet some targets in fundraising as an entry task to join the bank.

An internship also helps you get a foot in the door. Banks also offer internship opportunities to students, providing an opportunity for early experience in the industry. In addition, it can help build relationships within the bank to take temporary jobs before joining full-time. Recruitment companies that work as staffing agencies for banks provide contract opportunities to work with banks.

Starting your career or having a consulting experience in Big 4 or Big 8 firms such as PwC, KPMG, Deloitte, and EY also provide a springboard to a career in the banking industry. Banks typically hire staff from these organisations into middle and senior roles. Investment banks usually require graduates with prior experience in the financial sector. 

Association of Chartered Certified Accountants (ACCA), Association of International Accountants (AIA), Certified Financial Analyst (CFA) Institute, Association of Accounting Technicians (AAT), International Federation of Accountants (IFAC), Institute of Management Accountants, International Federation of Francophone Accountants (FIDEF), The Institute of Internal Auditors (IIA), International Association of Investment Bankers Since (IAIB)

Ghana Professional and industry bodies
National Professional Accountancy Organisation, Ghana National Chamber of Commerce, Ghana Association of Bankers, Institute of Chartered Accountants of Ghana, Ghana MicroFinance Institutions Network


Tidjane Thiam, Janet Yellen, Okonjo Iweala, Warren Buffet, J.P Morgan, James Dimon, Josef Ackermann,

Ghana Career Champions
Ken Ofori-Atta, Yaw Kuffour, Joseph Siaw Agyepong, J.S Addo, Mansa Nettey, Amediku Settor Kwabla


World Bank, International Monetary Fund, International Finance Corporation, African Development Bank, 

Bank of Ghana, Ministry of Finance, Securities and Exchange Commission, Internal Audit Agency, Ghana EXIM Bank, Ghana Revenue Authority


Global Leading Employers, and Companies, Startups
Barclays, Bank of America, Societe Generale, Goldman Sachs, Standard Chartered Bank, Access Bank PLC, Standard Bank Group, J.P Morgan, Ecobank, Morgan Stanley, Zenith Bank, Allianz, The World Bank, Capital One, Wells Fargo, Guaranty Trust Bank, Absa, DeVere Group, First National Bank, American Express, RBC, BNP Paribas, PNC Financial Services Group, BNY Mellon, Chase, NatWest Group, Merrill Lynch,  IFC, SEI Investments, 

Ghana’s Leading Employers, and Companies, Startups
Bank of Africa, Societe Generale, Standard Chartered Bank, Access Bank PLC, Standard Bank Group, Ecobank, Zenith Bank, United Bank for Africa, The World Bank, Guaranty Trust Bank, Absa, DeVere Group, Yes Bank, Allianz Ghana.


  • Fintechs as Challengers
    Startups leveraging data and technology are bringing innovations to markets at an unprecedented rate for traditional financial service providers and regulators to deal with. However, several incumbent financial institutions respond by rolling out fintech offerings to their customer base. Some of these are exclusively from them, while others partner with Fintechs.

    Evolving Customer Expectations 
    Customers now expect personalised and instant access to a menu of financial services. They also expect services to be accessible across multiple digital channels and their requests promptly attended to.

    Fraud and Cybercrime
    The financial sector is exposed to several threats from within and outside the financial system. The complexity of fraud and money laundering operations continues to evolve, putting the deposit of customers, operations and reputation of financial firms at risk.

    Underserved Customers
    Agency and digital banking services have helped close the financial inclusion gap in several developing countries. However, most of the population is still underserved due to the lack of robust financial services to cater for their needs. Access to credit at an affordable rate remains a challenge for individuals and small to medium-sized businesses.

    Exposure to Global Risk 
    The connectedness of the global financial system has made economic systems vulnerable to shocks that may come from anywhere in the world. For example, default on loans in the US may lead to a domino effect on financial markets in Europe and catalyse to become a global financial crisis.

    Tougher Regulatory Environment
    The financial sector is highly regulated. In both good and bad times of the economy, the financial sector is a target of increasing legislation and policies and has to adhere to the government’s strict compliance measures. The globalisation of finance also implies that many of them are exposed to the regulatory environment in international markets.

    Legacy Systems
    Financial institutions with a long history of operation are significant players in any nation’s financial service industry. But unfortunately, a majority of them are challenged with legacy systems of existing software, processes, and business infrastructure, which can be challenging to integrate, change or adapt to new technologies.

    The volatility of the World Economy
    From the devastating effect of COVID-19, mounting rate of inflation, fluctuation in the value of currencies and the foreign reserves of Nations, to wars among nations, the financial sector’s stability is threatened by uncertain times.

    • Digitigitisation is on the high in the following areas of finance:

      • AI for interfacing with customers, delivering advisory services, and making product recommendations in banking.
      • The emergence of blockchain technologies for trust management and digital currencies in business finance. 
      • Data-driven decisions such as calculation of premiums based on predictive analytics in insurance.
      • Robotic Process Automation and advanced AI technologies for automating manual accounting processes.
      • Algorithmic stock trading – quants in investment banking.
      • Loan prediction and credit scoring based on historical financial records, behavioural analysis, and big data in banking.
      • Automation of accounting workflows to reduce the burden of manual data entry.


  • How Finance Works: The HBR Guide to Thinking Smart about the Numbers
  • Narrative and Numbers: The Value of Stories in Business
  • Managerial Accounting: Tools for Business Decision Making
  • Cost Accounting: A Managerial Emphasis
  • How to Read a Financial Report: wringing vital signs out of the numbers


  • The Abacus Show
  • ACCA Podcasts
  • From CPA to CFO
  • Cashflow Diary
  • The Economist Podcast


  • CFO Magazine
  • Strategic Finance
  • Global Banking & Finance
  • Financial Planning Magazine
  • Accounting Today


  • Enron: The Smartest Guys in the Room
  • The Accountant (2016)
  • The Insider (1999)
  • In Debt We Trust: America Before the Bubble Bursts (2006) 


  • World Economic Forum
  • Africa Finance Summit
  • Africa Fintech Foundry/Summit
  • African Insurance Organization Conference and General Assembly

Information Technology

Overview of the Information Technology Industry

Information Technology has become one of the fastest-growing career disciplines due to the numerous career opportunities it presents. In addition to innovation and entrepreneurship, a career in information technology provides immense employment opportunities across all industries. The profession can improve efficiency and empower humans to be more productive in their fields of endeavour. Careers in information technology span from the design, development, implementation, deployment, installation, management and support of hardware, software, and network systems and digital services in other sectors such as education, healthcare, media, commerce, marketing and communications.

Information technology is also one of the most dynamic careers. There is a constant need for continual learning to remain relevant in the industry. Despite the availability of some free and premium training and certifications accessible to people without IT-related degrees, there remains a huge demand for IT professionals and a shortage of IT skills in the labour force. Top IT professionals are a hot cake in the workplace today.

The top career pathways include:

  • IT Support and Services 
  • Networking and Telecommunications
  • Cloud Computing and Infrastructure 
  • Software and Web Development 
  • Database and Data Science
  • Information systems
  • Cybersecurity and Digital Forensics

The highest paying jobs across industries are Big data engineer, DevOps Engineer, Information systems security manager, Mobile applications developer, Applications Architect, Data Architect, database manager, data security analyst, data scientist, network/cloud architect, senior web developer, site reality engineer, systems engineer, and software engineer.

  • A career in information technology will benefit from the following industry skills:

    • Communication: IT is a field of communication, which is why it is referred to as ICT in several climes – most especially in the developing world. IT professionals provide solutions or support others who are not usually as technology inclined as they are. Therefore, being able to communicate provides an advantage for a successful career in the field.
    • Analysis & Problem-Solving: Information technology’s universal appeal is the ability to solve problems in other fields through algorithms that automate expert skills. However, this requires the ability to translate real-world use-cases to codes through a thorough analysis of the requirements collected. It can be quite a daunting challenge, which many times requires problem-solving skills to resolve.
    • Initiative & Enterprise: A career in information technology provides a lot of entrepreneurial entry due to the low entry barrier, especially in software and digital services. Initiative & Enterprise skills give the ability to spot opportunities and find a path towards turning them into a sustainable business. It has made IT professionals one of the most represented groups in the list of the world’s wealthiest people.
    • Continual Learning & Adaptation: IT is a dynamic field. Technologies that seem hot today can be out of fashion in less than half of a decade. IT professionals need to continually learn to stay up-to-date on being proficient in the latest tools of their professional trade. Some of these are available as certifications from leading technology providers or as software updates that now incorporate machine learning which professionals need to adapt.
    • Creativity & Critical Thinking: IT platforms provide a canvas to solve problems. However, your level of creativity and ability to think critically can help you create solutions that stand out in the marketplace amidst a pool of global competition. In a field where critical thinking is required to meet its high demand for logic, a burst of creativity can make all the difference. However, rarely does one go without the other in solving problems.
    • Digital Proficiency: This is native to the field of information technology itself. Key competencies are Coding, Data and Design. Even though IT professionals may not be experts at any of these competencies, they must have a fundamental grasp. The day to day work of IT professionals revolves around them. Networking professionals may sometimes need to write a script in software-defined networking. Cybersecurity specialists may need to analyse data to detect threats. An enterprise information systems analyst may need to come up with diagrams to aid planning software integrations. 

The top career pathways include:

  • IT Support and Services 
  • Networking and Telecommunications
  • Cloud Computing and Infrastructure 
  • Software and Web Development 
  • Database and Data Science
  • Information systems
  • Cybersecurity and Digital Forensics

The highest paying jobs across industries are Big data engineer, DevOps Engineer, Information systems security manager, Mobile applications developer, Applications Architect, Data Architect, database manager, data security analyst, data scientist, network/cloud architect, senior web developer, site reality engineer, systems engineer, and software engineer.

The jobs with the lowest entry barriers are those in customer service. However, graduates from all professions are eligible for management and marketing positions.

Several network companies in this sector do not recruit for technical roles as most of their specialised services are outsourced for management to partners. However, those companies do such technical roles recruitment.  

There are internship opportunities with big telecom companies. However, internships for engineering students do not always provide the necessary skill required. However, suppose you’re looking for technical jobs or internships. In that case, you should look into network equipment and companies that provide telecom network support.

In this field, graduate recruiting opportunities are accessible and are advertised via traditional or social media. Staying in touch with these outlets will help you stay informed about job openings in this field.

Aptitude tests are conducted before the main interview in this industry because many people apply for positions. The aptitude test narrows down the candidates who best fit the available roles before moving to the interview stage.

Telcos are big organisations, but they rely heavily on SMEs as partners to distribute their products. Telcos in Africa outsource their technical services to management partners and rely on other small businesses as their technology partners.

You would typically work in teams that range from research and development, technical installation, sales and marketing to technical support, and possibly design and user experience specialists.

With several telecom companies operating as multinationals, frequent travel is required for some roles. 

It is a highly competitive and fast-moving industry that regularly changes product offerings and customer feedback, which is never late to follow.

Big companies that focus on networks, devices, etc., pay higher salaries than the industry average. These companies also provide benefits like insurance, work leave, teamwork, exposure to new technologies, career growth, etc.

It is a highly competitive industry. Staff are very mobile in the industry, i.e. they move from one company to another. Also, most technical roles are outside the office, i.e. they work outside the typical office space as they often work on-site. Customer Service, sales & marketing, management, Data Analyst roles, etc., work in the office and some work from home.

The typical work hours for a telecommunications administrator are from 9 AM to 5 PM, Monday through Friday, in an office setting. However, longer or different hours may, at times, be necessary.

Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), IEEE Computer Society organisations, Association of Information Technology Professionals (AITP), Computing Technology Industry Association (CompTIA), Information Systems Audit and Control Association (ISACA), Network Professional Association, and The Association for Women in Computing (AWC) 

Institute of ICT Professionals of Ghana, Information Technology Association of Ghana, Computer Science Students Association of Ghana.


  • Global Career Champions
    Satya Nadella, Bill Gates, Steve Jobs, Sergey Brin, Mark Zukerberg, Sundar Pichai, Larry Page, Michael Dell, Larry Elisson, Marc Benioff.

    Ghana Career Champions
    Joseph Lamptey, Maxwell Techie, Ebo Richardson, Estelle Akofie-Somah, Patricia Obo-Nai



  • UNIDO | United Nations Industrial Development Organization

The National Information Technology Agency, National Communications Authority, Ministry of Information, Ministry of Communications

Google, Microsoft, IBM, Accenture, Oracle, Intel, Workday, Tech Mahindra, Robert Bosch, Apple, Bolt, Amazon, Meta, HCL Technologies, SalesForce, Uber, Bloomberg L.P, SAP, MeltWater, LionBridge, HubSpot, Twitter, Ingram Micro, Dell Technologies, Apple, Infosys, Fiserve, ServiceNow, ADP, Adobe, VMWare, Intuit, SS&C Technologies, Broadridge Financial Solutions, Palto Alto Networks, Paychex, Amdocs, Autodesk, Citrix, Akamai Technologies, Twilo, Palantir, ASML, Qualcom, Boradcom, Tencent, Alibaba, Samsung, Nvidia, Texas Instruments, Meiutan, AMD, Analog Devices, Atlassian, Palo Alto Networls. Dassault Systemes, Candence, NXP, Roper Technologies, TE Connectivity, Arista Networks, Electronic Arts, Veeva Systems, Ericsson, SMI, DXC, NTT, NEC Corp, Fujitsu, Infosys, Tata Consulting Services, HP Enterprise, Capegemini, Cognizant

Compu Ghana, Clydestone, Websoft Solutions, The SoftTribe Limited, IPMC Ghana, Microsoft Ghana, IBM, Google Ghana, Done By None, Jumia Ghana, Oracle, Tech Mahindra, Glovo,, Robert Bosch, Apple, Bolt, Amazon, Meta, HCL Technologies, SalesForce, Globacom, Uber, Bloomberg L.P, SAP, MeltWater, LionBridge, HubSpot, Twitter, Ingram Micro, Bolt, Bloomberg, American Tower Corporation, Parallel Wireless, Tech Gulf, Twitter, Oracle, Uber, Emergent Payments,  EAI Information Systems, Cisco.


  • Shortage of Talent: the rapid growth in digital technologies across industries has led to a rise in the demand for jobs in the development and management of IT systems. Innovators are creating programmes outside formal education to accelerate the transition into tech careers by closing the knowledge gap and collapsing other barriers to entry.

    Skill Gaps: the rate of change within the information technology industry and its impact on other sectors make continual learning adaption through re-skilling and upskilling crucial for tech and other workers. Platforms to assess staff skill gaps and provide targeted training modules are becoming increasingly available.

    Retention of Talent: the challenges posed by the shortage of talents and skill gaps have made the competition for talent intense and challenging for employers to keep staff. Remote work has allowed employers to widen their talent pool and hire remote staff at salaries at competitive rates in their countries, though comparatively less in the technology hotbeds.

    Fake Content: this extends from fake news to deep-fake content generated by machine learning technologies fuelled by virality in an age of social media to threaten harmonious living in communities and the democracies of Nations. Companies have responded with content filtering algorithms and personnel and empowered users to report such content.

    Widening Technology Gap: there is a big divide between infrastructure investments and human capital between developed and developing countries. Only a few nations take the lead as producers, while others play catchup as consumers of technology. These have led some governments to respond with protectionist policies in managing their IT infrastructure and storage of data.

    Business Continuity and Disaster Recovery: the high rate of dependence of every facet of our society on information technology has made IT infrastructure critical. Downtimes lead to loss of business and can be costly to human lives. Therefore, backup and protection of IT infrastructure have become a priority for the government of many nations.

    Rise in Cybercrime: data, IT infrastructure and users are increasingly vulnerable to bad actors who use technological and social engineering tools to gain authorised access to data for malicious purposes. These have led to the rise of the cybersecurity industry, which offers proactive and responsive solutions to cyber threats and attacks.

    Uncertainty on the Impact of AI: artificial intelligence’s potential to replicate human-like intelligence in several activities can be disruptive to billions of jobs. In a bid for efficiency and cost savings, private-sector employers are increasingly investing in such IT systems to be competitive. Upskilling employers for new jobs created by information technology can mitigate these threats. 

    Ethical Concerns: artificial intelligence empowers machines to make decisions on the Warfield. This will also apply increasingly to our everyday lives with driverless car insight. Another critical area is gene sequencing. The ethical implications of empowering artificial intelligence to make these decisions and determining what decisions they will make at crucial moments are rekindling the debate about right and wrong.

    Governments and Regulations: technology companies have come under the radar of several governments for their business practices. Governments are increasingly using the data from IT companies to create surveillance systems and cracking down on citizens based on their access to data.


  • The Innovators by Walter Isaacson
  • Business at the Speed of Thought by Bill Gate
  • Information Technology Essentials Eric Fric
  • The Soul of a New Machine by Tacy Kidder


  • Technovation
  • This Week in Enterprise Tech
  • Supporting IT Support
  • a16z


  • CIO
  • Techcrunch
  • Techpoint
  • Disrupt Africa
  • TechCentral
  • My BroadBand


  • The Social Network
  • Minority Report
  • Her
  • The Internship
  • 2001; A Space Odyssey


  • Informa AfricaCom and other Regional/National Com events
  • IoT Forum Africa
  • Digital Payments and e-Commerce Africa Summit and Expo (Pay Africa Expo and Summit)
  • African Drone Forum
  • Consumer Electronics Show

Industrials and Manufacturing

Overview of the Industrials & Manufacturing Industry

The industrial industry involves fabricating products intended for industrial use from raw materials. The output of this industry makes mass manufacturing possible in most sectors. It produces machinery such as hardware, paper and packaging materials, glass, and fixtures. Among the businesses that the industry engages in are the production and selling of machinery, supplies, and equipment used to produce other goods. The products are not geared towards the end consumer.

The Manufacturing Industry deals with the large-scale production of goods that converts raw materials, parts, and components into finished merchandise using manual labour and machines. Today, manufacturing utilises machines, robots, computers, and humans to produce parts or ready goods. Typically, an assembly line enables creating of a product, moving from one workstation to the next.

The Manufacturing industry is divided into heavy, or large-scale, and light, or small-scale industries: 

  • The large-scale industry involves a significant investment in plants and machinery. It serves a vast and diverse market, including small scale manufacturing industries. The industry generally has a complex industrial organisation and specialised labour force, generating a large output volume; examples include crude oil refining, steel and iron manufacturing, vehicle manufacturing, and heavy machinery manufacture.
  • Light or small-scale industry involves smaller capital investment in plants and equipment. It may involve nonstandard products, such as customised or craftwork. The labour force may be low-skilled in textile and clothing manufacturing, food processing, and plastics manufacturing.

Industrial equipment can also be grouped into seven different segments. Agricultural, construction, mining, industrial, commercial and service machinery are all special-purpose machinery designed for a specific industry. The four other segments include machinery used by all sectors: ventilation, heating, cooling, metalworking equipment, engine and engine-related equipment, and other general-purpose machinery.

Manufacturing and production are synonymous for a lot of people. Production involves creating and assembling goods. A career in production is suitable for innovative people who like to bring designs to life. Examples of roles in this pathway include CNC Machinists, Welders, Automotive industry workers, Production Supervisors, Metalworkers, Certified Production Technicians and Precision Machinists.

Manufacturing Production Process Development:
This pathway includes the design sector of the industry, a necessary component in producing manufacturing goods. Professionals in this pathway design the goods and develop and program the production processes. Additionally, they interview their target customers. They also evaluate the current market for a product and gather feedback from consumers. Careers within manufacturing production process development include Industrial Designers, Industrial Engineers, Engineering Technicians, Research Analysts, Manufacturing production supervisors etc.

Logistics and Inventory Control:
Logistics involves the planning and moving of materials to and from manufacturing sites. Like logistics, inventory control involves organising the transportation, receipt, and delivery of materials and products, from acquisition to distribution. 

Careers in this pathway include: Shipping and Receiving Specialists (and Supervisors), Inventory Control Specialists, Industrial Traffic Managers, Inventory Managers, Supply Chain Specialists/ Analyst, and Logistician.

Quality Assurance:
Quality assurance professionals are critical in the industrial & manufacturing industry. They help ensure that the production and output of goods meet high-quality standards and specifications. These professionals may test manufactured goods/machines to ensure they work and are correctly assembled. In addition, they may also write the rules for quality for a company or product. Customer satisfaction is their priority. Examples of careers in this manufacturing career path are Quality Controller, Quality Supervisor, Receiving Inspector, Manufacturing Quality Inspector, Supplier Quality Assurance Supervisor, Quality Auditor, and Quality Customer Service Representative.

Health, Safety, and Environmental Assurance:
This career pathway involves ensuring workers’ and products’ safety. These professionals conduct safety and health inspections within the workplace and ascertain it is safe for employees. In addition, they teach employees safe working practices, train them on equipment and emergency procedures, and implement incident and hazard investigations as needed. Furthermore, some professionals will confirm that consumers can use goods safely. Roles in this pathway include Health and Regulatory Inspectors, Industrial Safety and Health Technicians, Environmental Engineers, Health and Safety Engineers, and Safety Supervisors.

Maintenance, Installation, and Repair:
Manufacturing processes involve high-tech tools, machines, software programs, and equipment. As a result, skilled professionals must ensure these various technologies operate smoothly. They install and onboard machinery. Additionally, they regularly test machines, evaluate the performance of tools, and upgrade software programs. Furthermore, they troubleshoot any problems and recommend new tools and technology. Their work is vital for employees’ safety and production quality. Career pathways in this cluster include System Setup Specialists, Manufacturing Repair Technicians/Manufacturing Test Engineer, Computer Maintenance Technicians, Maintenance Supervisors, Steamfitters, Pipefitters, and Millwrights.

The Highest Paying Jobs in the industry include:
Manufacturing Manager/Industrial Production Manager, Operation Manager, CNC Manufacturing Engineer, Information Technology Manager, Human Resources Manager , Mechatronics Engineer, Mechanical Engineer, Manufacturing Test Engineer, Plant Engineering Manager

    • Analysis & Problem-Solving
      Employers love problem solvers, and hence, your need to be able to proffer solutions to challenges as they arise in the workplace. Therefore, you must be able to spot, analyse and give answers to problems. 

    • Creativity & Critical Thinking
      Working in this industry requires you to be able to think creatively and critically. While it is true that workers follow orders from their superiors in this industry, creative solutions and ideas are also appreciated as it gives a new way to do things. Employers value workers who can analyse situations at work, see problems or errors, and then propose solutions to them. You must think critically to spot things that aren’t working or when something that used to work no longer work. You must be able to profer solutions to them or liaise with your team to solve such problems.

    • Continual Learning & Adaptation
      Workers in this industry must keep up with skills as the business evolves and more industrial and manufacturing organisations embrace automation. Continuous learning can help you stay relevant in the field; some individuals in this area are losing their jobs worldwide due to industrialisation and a lack of skills to fulfil demand. Learning and adapting to changing trends, technology, and other factors can help you stay relevant in this field.

    • Teamwork
      How well do you collaborate with others? In this industry, your ability to connect and collaborate with people is also highly valued, as several operations require collaboration with other team members. To enhance project productivity and success, you must be able to collaborate with other industry professionals.

    • Planning & Organisation
      There is always a variety of activities going on at work, most of which have various priorities. Identifying project priorities in the short and long term and building a feasible plan to complete the tasks entrusted to you is key to success in the job. To achieve a goal or aim, workers in this industry must be able to manage time, tools, and resources successfully.

    • Digital Skills 
      Having digital skills will give you an edge in this industry. The industry is evolving with the adoption of technologies. Therefore, the automation of several processes, such as automation and data analysis, is relevant. Furthermore, learning and gaining digital skills like Inventory Management System software, Data Analytics, Digital marketing, etc., would help this industry depending on your career cluster. 

A majority of frontline careers in Industrial & manufacturing don’t need a university education. The most common degrees for hands-on workers involved in the day-to-day affairs of Industrial/manufacturing companies are secondary, technical and polytechnic education. It is an industry where experience is highly valued. Careers in production are varied, and entry-level positions require different educational degrees. Industrial production employees create and maintain efficient operations or ensure safe working conditions that meet strict regulations. 

For graduate careers in the industry, relevant degrees include Industrial engineering, Systems Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Chemical Engineering, Electrical Electronics Engineering, Computer Engineering and other technical degrees.

Some postgraduate programs include MSc Advanced Process Engineering, MSc Production Engineering and Operations Management, MSc Industrial Control Engineering, MSc Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, MSc Mechatronics, MSc Product Design, Engineering & Manufacturing, MSc Process Systems Engineering, MSc Chemical Process Engineering, MSc Industrial Engineering, MSc Process Safety, MPhil Industrial Systems, MSc Manufacturing and Management, MSc Logistics and Supply Chain Management, and MSc Operations Management.

Here are some certifications courses you can take:

Certified Manufacturing Engineering Certification, Certified Production Technician, Certified Automation Professional, Quality Engineer Certification, American Society for Quality Certification, Project Management Professional, Certified Associate in Project Management (CAPM), Project Management Professional (PMP), Business analyst certifications, Certified in Production and Inventory Management (CPIM), Certified Supply Chain Professional (CSCP), Certified in Logistics, Transportation, and Distribution (CLTD)

You may have heard that industry & manufacturing jobs entail producing boxes/products/pieces of equipment, packing & transporting industrial products, and sweating while operating heavy machinery and equipment. However, that is not entirely accurate; you can take various career paths in this industry, so research what the job entails before applying for jobs or graduate programs. Then, if the position aligns with your career plan, apply. 

Some production jobs in this industry do not require a degree. In contrast, other management, administration, or specialised production roles might require a formal degree.

Companies in this industry send out job vacancies on their official website. In addition, to recruitment agencies, it will be of help to check such channels to get updates about available jobs. Also, recruitment is done based on referrals, so connecting with people in the industry would help secure a job. 

Interviews are done for potential employees in this industry, especially for specialised roles and jobs that require a degree. For example, for some workers in the production units, all that is needed might be a written application and being physically fit. Then, they are hired, but for some roles, technical, administration, Marketing, etc., interviews are conducted for applicants to select the best hand for the job.

Industrials and manufacturing companies are usually the largest or one of the largest employers. Though many industrial & manufacturing processes have become automated, there are still a lot of activities done and operations coordinated by humans that make work in the industry highly demanding. This makes the industry require a sizeable number of workers compared to other industries. 

Workers earn salaries based on their education and location, but work experience is crucial for technical roles and a key consideration for compensation. 

In most manufacturing setups, most production workers work on contract and may receive hourly, daily or weekly wages. Experienced technicians usually manage the machines, while workers may work on sorting and product labelling tasks. Most of these jobs are repetitive, require following instructions strictly and may require spending most of the time on one’s feet while being safety-conscious. In addition, workers work based on shifts, and some might need to work at night to keep up with production.

Administrative and management staff work in offices that are often outside their manufacturing and industrial operations. Also, you can pursue several career paths in this industry, contrary to the belief that jobs in this industry are mainly fabrication and production work. There are other career paths in administration, finance, human resource, marketing, etc., that career seeker can pursue in this industry.

Employers in this industry provide health insurance cover for their staff. In addition, working in this industry opens you to learn about new technological tools and how to use them. As technology advances and new tools are being introduced in the workspace, companies often hire instructors to train their staff on using new technological tools. Again, this helps build your skillsets.

Another peck of working in this industry is working with a team; this allows you to interact and rubs minds with others while working towards productivity. Again, this allows for human interaction, making work more fun and productive.

Another perk of working in this industry is working with a team; this allows you to interact and rubs minds with others while working towards productivity. Again, this allows for human interaction, making work more fun and productive.

Association for Manufacturing Technology (AMT)
IEEE Electronics Packaging Society
Robotics and Automation Society (RAS)
Institute of Industrial and Systems Engineers (IISE)
Society of Manufacturing Engineers
American Society for Precision Engineering (ASPE)
Manufacturing Council (USA)

Private Enterprise Federation, Association of Ghana Industries


  • James Dyson

    Maxwell Kofi Jumah, Emelia Adjei Ohene-Kena, Mukesh V. Thakwani, Charles Darku, Ahomka Lindsay 



  • UNIDO | United Nations Industrial Development Organization

Ghana National Chamber of Commerce and Industry, Ministry of Trade and Industry, Ghana Investment Promotion Centre


Apple, Toyota Group, Samsung Electronics, Nestle, Nissan, Intel, Lenovo, IBM, Unilever, PepsiCo, Hoffmann-La Roche, Procter & Gamble, Hengli Group, General Motors, BMW, Cardinal Health, Nissan, Hitachi, Bosch, Aviation Industry Corporation of China, Lockheed Martin, Boeing, Volkswagen Group, Honda, BASF, Sinochem, ChemChina, General Electric, Sinopharm, Hoffmann-La Roche, Enel, China Baowu Steel Group, Airbus, Ford, Foxconn. Johnson & Johnson, Daimler, Hon Hai Precision, Daimler, Hon Hai Precision Industry, Honey Well, Union Pacific, Dow Chemical, Tesla, SAIC, Mitsubishi, BMW, Huawei, LG, HP, Coca-cola, Nike, L’Oréal, Imperial Brands, PLC, Danone, Tyson Foods, Nike Inc, Kraft Heinz, Altria Group, Adidas AG, British American Tobacco PLC, Whirlpool Corp, General Mills, Compagnie Financiere Richemont SA, Pernod Ricard, Johnson & Johnson, Heineken Holding NV, 3M Co, Nestlé SA.

Edita Food Industries, Dolidol, KS Africa, JET Motor Company, Si-Ware Companies, Reibus International, Atonarp, Seeq, Triax Technologies, Inc., Uptake Technologies, Dodla Dairy, Relativity Space, Blue Origin, SiFive, Lightyear.

Fanmilk Ghana, Kantanka Automobile Company Limited, Unilever Ghana, Guinness Ghana Limited, Gold Fields Ghana Limited, Polytank Ghana Limited, Nestle Ghana, Accra Brewery, Akosombo Textiles, Tema Oil Refinery, Tinatett Herbal Manufacturing and Marketing Company Limited, Tema Cocoa Processing Company, Coca-Cola Bottling Company of Ghana, Kasapreko Company Limited, Sterling International Company, GIHOC Distilleries, Kane-Em Industries Limited, Royal Crown Packaging Limited, B5 Plus Steel Industry, Rockters Roofing Systems Limited, Jelcem Ghana Limited, Unique Roofing Systems


    • Automation
      The automation of the industrial goods industry has aided in increasing efficiency, preserving production stability, and enhancing workplace safety, among other things. Still, it has also resulted in many industrial employees’ employment loss. As more businesses automate parts of their operations, most industrial workers are concerned about job loss due to technological improvements. Moreover, some employees believe that technology will never be able to replace the human mind.
    • Healthcare Cost for Workers
      Another problem the industry faces is keeping up with changing and rising healthcare costs. As healthcare costs rise, industrial businesses find it increasingly difficult to manage their budgets. For example, in the United States, manufacturers pay for their employees’ healthcare. However, it is no longer practicable as expenses increase, and there are no viable alternatives.
    • Inventory Management
      Although automated technologies have made inventory management much more accessible, it remains one of the most demanding tasks in the industrial industry. Despite this, many manufacturers, particularly small ones, manage their supply by hand. Inventory management is a time-consuming task. However, that can be aided by software. Manual stock checks are inefficient and prone to errors, leading to inaccuracies, shortages, overstocking, and unidentified damages.
    • Shortages of skilled workers
      It is a significant issue for many businesses, but manufacturing is particularly impacted. As the baby boomer population approaches retirement, skilled professionals in numerous industrial goods and manufacturing companies are in great demand. While some mechanised activities and machine sensors have become more ubiquitous, millennials with technical skills and knowledge still need to replace the retiring workforce.
    • High Exchange Rate
      The sudden rise in the exchange rate has damaged the industrial & manufacturing sectors. The prices of goods or raw materials have tripled or quadrupled. As a result, manufacturers are forced to reduce their product sizes or increase their prices. It has strained the consumers and the manufacturers.
    • Infrastructural Challenges
      The Manufacturing industry in Nigeria has many infrastructural challenges. A crucial issue that hinders manufacturers in Nigeria is the inability to access an uninterrupted power supply. There has been a massive decline in electricity supply across the country that has further affected the industrial and manufacturing companies in the nation. In addition, alternative power sources like Diesel generators can exorbitantly increase the cost of production. Other infrastructural challenges include bad roads and poor storage facilities.
    • Inconsistent Government PoliciesChanging government policies has challenged Nigeria’s manufacturing industry and inexistent industrial segment. Poor access to foreign exchange to import goods, lax enforcement of protectionist policies and bottlenecks in the importation of machinery have made the business environment challenging for local manufacturers and industrialists are no longer competitive with importers of the same goods.
    • Challenges in the industry include a lack of skilled employers, high exchange rates, infrastructure challenges, poor distribution, 

      Here are innovation opportunities in the industrial and Manufacturing industry which include:

      Artificial Intelligence
      Factories are integrating AI across their production systems and processes. Advanced AI allows for predictive maintenance, cognitive computing, swarm intelligence, context-aware computing, smart machines, hardware accelerators, and generative design. 

      Human Augmentation 
      The physical and cognitive augmentation of humans is a significant industry innovation. Technologies like wearables and exoskeletons are augmenting human limitations. Furthermore, industrial mobile devices, natural and intuitive UI, and portable machine control screens enhance the ease of using such technology. 

      Extended Reality (XR)
      The industry already uses XR technologies like mixed reality (MR), augmented reality (AR), and virtual reality (VR) in the research and development (R&D) to full-scale production and post-production processes. It is changing the way industrial manufacturing systems function. The nature of human-machine interaction is aligning more toward machine-enabled workers.

      Internet of Everything
      The machine-machine, human-machine, and human-human real-time connectedness together comprise the internet of everything in manufacturing. It includes IIoT, internet of skills, internet of services, internet of systems, and shop floor IoT. The internet of everything combines real-time data, machine intelligence, and human skills, resulting in faster, efficient, and cost-effective manufacturing processes.

      Edge, Fog & Cloud Computing
      The immense amount of data generated by the industrial internet of things (IIoT) is propelling the adoption of edge, fog, and cloud computing capabilities in the industrial manufacturing Industry. As a result, custom hardware and software solutions like connected clouds, distributed clouds, distributed compute and storage, hybrid computing, low code development platforms, microservices, mobile computing, and multi-access edge computing are shaping this industry.

      Advanced Robotics
      Advancements in robotics make the Industrial and Manufacturing industry processes faster, more efficient, and safer. The most prominent robotic technologies impacting manufacturing include autonomous robots, collaborative robots (cobots), autonomous mobile robots, humanoid, mobile robots, cloud robotics, APIs, pick and place robots, and robot swarms. Robots offer higher precision and agility while improving the capability of rapidly developing customisable robots. Robots also free up time for the human workforce to focus on other non-repetitive or high-value tasks.


  • All About Pull Production by Christoph Roser, John Shook
  • Managing Supply Chain Risk and Disruptions (Post COVID-19) by Aravind Raj Sakthivel, Jayakrishna Kandasamy, J. Paulo Davim
  • Industrial Engineering by Mario Fernández
  • Organisational Behaviour and Human Resource Management 
  • Input-Output Models for Sustainable Industrial Systems by Raymond R. Tan, Kathleen B. Aviso, Michael Angelo B. Promentilla, Krista Danielle S. Yu
  • Maintenance and Reliability Best Practices by Ramesh Gulati
  • Lessons from the Titans by Scott Davies
  • Toyota Kata by Mike Rother


  • Making Chips
  • The Sound of Automation
  • In Machine We Trust
  • Manufacturing Happy Hour
  • Augmented
  • The Manufacturing Executives
  • Solution Podcast
  • The Future is connected


  • AfricaBuild
  • Complast South Africa
  • Manufacturing Association of Nigeria Event
  • Digital Africa Conference
  • Lagos International Trade Fair
  • Ceramica West Africa
  • Nigeria Build Expo
  • Mega Clima Nigeria 2022
  • Agra Innovate West Africa
  • Propak West Africa


  • Master Hands
  • America Factory
  • Manufacturing Dissect
  • The Promise Land
  • Detropia
  • Heavy Rescue: 401


  • The Manufacturer
  • Industry Week
  • Advanced Manufacturing
  • Trade magazine
  • Venture Beat


Overview of the Construction Industry

The construction industry covers the processes involved in delivering buildings, infrastructure, industrial facilities, and associated activities through to the end of their life. It typically starts with planning, financing, and design. It continues until the asset is built and ready for use; construction also covers repairs and maintenance work and works to expand, extend and improve the asset, and its eventual demolition, dismantling or decommissioning.

The construction industry is made up of many types of building and civil engineering jobs. The construction industry includes jobs in carpentry, road construction, bridge development, and home design. This industry is one of the largest in the world because it is responsible for creating the infrastructure for cities, towns, and countries.

There are three major parts to the construction industry. These are general contractors, specialty trade construction, and civil engineering construction:

  • General Construction Firms: General contractors build buildings and roads for residential and commercial construction projects, manage multiple sub-constructors on each project, and are responsible for the organization and oversight of plumbers, painters, and electricians working on building sites.
  • Specialty trade construction: these are trade associations with a specific focus. Bricklayers, floor installers, and carpenters are just a few examples. The general contractor directs and guides the majority of specialized trade groups.

  • Civil engineering construction: This area specializes in the design, construction, and maintenance of the physical and naturally built environment, including public works such as roads, bridges, canals, dams, airports, sewage systems, pipelines, structural components of buildings, and railways.

The construction industry’s working conditions can be harsh and demanding. Professionals and workers are required to operate outside in a variety of challenging conditions, such as extreme cold and heat. A construction worker must be physically fit because he works long shifts that require intense physical exertion.

The construction industry is one of the largest employers of labour in a majority of countries around the world. This is because it provides numerous opportunities for professionals, technicians, and other providers of unskilled labour. Graduate roles in the industry include:

  • Architects and architectural technologists
  • Building services engineers
  • Building surveyors
  • Civil, structural, and geotechnical engineers
  • Landscape architects
  • Site managers
  • Electrician
  • Carpenter
  • Sheet Metal Worker
  • Computer Aided Designers and Building Information Modellers 
  • Civil Engineer
  • Compliance Manager
  • Construction Director
  • Contract Manager
  • Design Manager
  • Depot Manager
  • Electrical Engineer
  • Electrical Project Manager 
  • Environmental Engineer
  • Energy Manager

Other skilled roles in the industry which do not require a degree include:

  • Quantity surveyors
  • Crane Operator
  • Crane Supervisor 
  • Mason
  • Glazier
  • Plumbers
  • Painters
  • Electricians
  • Equipment Operator
  1. Planning & Organisation
    The ability to identify tasks; prioritize the execution based on how and when for the short term and long term. Setting up structures for getting things done and rightly allocate resources such as time, energy, and finances while meeting deadlines. This is an essential skill to have to thrive in the industry. 

    The Success level of each project is dependent on adequate planning and organization; the duration the project will take, the type of structures that will be built, the resources and materials needed, the number of teams needed, etc… must be put in place to aid the success of the project. 

    Networking & Teamwork 
    This has to do with one’s ability to build relationships and work smoothly with people from different disciplines, backgrounds, and expertise to accomplish a task or goal—respecting the differences and diversity as you contribute to team success. One must be able to work as a team with other professional team members; electrical & electronic engineers, crane operators, civil engineers, etc who will be working on a project together with you.

    Numeracy & Financial Literacy
    The ability to work with numbers, interpret numerical data, communicate your ideas quantitatively, understand financial reports and jargon—while making decisions based on this knowledge and understanding.

    Making estimates of materials and resources needed to start or complete a project, keeping a financial record on a project.

    Analysis & Problem-Solving
    It is the ability to understand and break down a situation, understand the challenges, identify the key elements and issues and suggest solutions while envisioning the implications of different approaches.

    Several challenges may come up while working on a project for which there is no pre-defined way to tackle such, one must be able to analyze each of the challenges, understand their uniqueness and proffer the relevant solutions to such challenges. 

    Digital Proficiency 
    Digital proficiency is the ability to use information technology skills, devices, and applications to assess information, process data, communicate, and collaborate with others in getting work done faster and more efficiently.

    Relevant digital skills to the construction industry include computer-aided design, visual communication design, and data analysis.

The construction industry is open to people with a variety of qualifications. Speciality roles in the industry are available to people with Associate & Bachelor’s in Civil Engineering, Architecture, Building Technology, Urban and Regional Planning, Mechanical Engineering, Master’s Degree in Construction Engineering and Management, and Construction Project Management.
Postgraduate degrees are also offered in the following areas:
MSc in Environmental Engineering in Urban Construction
Master in Construction Engineering and Management
MSc in Building Information Modeling and Management
Master’s Degree in Engineering of Roads, Canals, and Ports
MSc in Building and Architectural Engineering
MSc in Advanced Design and Management of Durable Constructions (ADMODC)
M.Sc. in Civil Engineering
Master of Science in Sustainable and Energy Efficient Buildings
MSc Road Management and Engineering
MSc in Structural Engineering 
M.Sc/M.Phil. in Building Structures
M.Sc./M.Phil. in Building Maintenance
M.Sc./M.Phil. in Construction Management
M.Sc./M.Phil in Building Services
Master in BIM Engineering
Management in Construction MSc

Evidence of continuing education such as certifications shows steadfast commitment to your future career. It lets your employers know you are dedicated. You’ll stand out above the rest with the proper credentials, increasing your value and worth.

The most common and valuable construction industry certifications that you can earn include:

Certified Construction Manager (CCM)
Associate Constructor Certification
Project Management for Construction Certification
Green Business Certification
Certified Safety Manager (CSM)
Certified Construction Manager (CCM)
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)
Quality in Construction Course – Chartered Institute of Building Academy
Health Safety and Environment (HSE)
Quantity Surveying
Building Information Modeling and Management
Construction Science and Management
Master in Contract, Claim and Delay Management in Construction Works

Competencies in leading computer-aided design and building information modelling software such as AutoCAD, Revit, and CATIA, from companies such as AutoDesk and Dassault Systemes are highly valued. Certifications are also available in these programs as evidence of these competencies.

Unlike some industries that require formal education, the construction industry does not require any formal education. Therefore, you can begin a career in the industry without a college degree or certifications. However, it is essential to note that formal certifications might not be required to start in the industry. However, having those certifications helps you scale up faster in the industry as several career paths need certain levels of education.

It is essential to apply for apprenticeship programs or internships with construction companies early in your career to build experience. In addition, the apprenticeship or internship programs get you familiar with the work environment and skills required for your career.

Working in the industry comes with many responsibilities. It requires being physically fit as the job descriptions need physical activities. Depending on your role/career path, you can work in a consulting company or with a contractor depending on your role/career path.

Working in the industry might require you to work eight to ten hours per day on a construction site or office, depending on your career path or job role. Sometimes, the working hours on site might be longer than usual. You might be working on shift bases (which may include nights) depending on the work done and the deadline for delivery. One satisfaction of working in the industry is seeing the end of a construction project; you get to see how the designs come alive from the panning stage until the final stage.

How Top Companies Recruit
The majority of top companies in the Construction industry recruit through an internship or graduate programs. Construction firms frequently collaborate with local colleges/universities to find candidates for internships or apprenticeships within the company. It is a straightforward method of construction recruiting because companies get to teach and train qualified workers who may eventually end up in full-time positions.

In addition, referral programs are a great way to find quality candidates to hire. It allows workers to refer/recommend trusted and skilled unemployed labour to companies in need of them. Some businesses in the industry have also embraced referrals as a source of new employees.

International Associations and Bodies
Confederation of International Contractors’ Associations (CICA)
Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning Manufacturers Association (HEVAC)
Industrial and Commercial Heating Equipment Association (ICOM
Lift and Escalator Industry Association (LEIA)
National Association of Rooflight Manufacturers (NARM)
National Association of Shopfitters (NAS)
National Federation of Demolition Contractors (NFDC)
National Federation of Roofing Contractors Limited. (NFRC)
Technology and Construction Solicitors’ Association (TSCA)

Ghana Chamber of Construction, Association of Building and Civil Engineer Contractors of Ghana


Danladi Slim Matawal

Kwabena Adjei-Larbi, Greg Parbey, Frank Lartey, Frank Acheampong


Construction Management Association of America (CMAA)
American Concrete Institute (ACI)
National Council of Examiners for Engineering and Surveying (NCEES)
CICA – Confederation of International Contractors’ Association
America Institute of Contractors (AIC)

The Chamber of Construction Industry Ghana, Ministry of Works and Housing, Ghana Ministry of Roads and Highways


ACS Actividades de Construcción y Servicios S.A., Hochtief Aktiengesellschaft, VINCI, China Communications Construction Group Ltd., Bouygues, Strabag, Power Construction Corp. of China, China State Construction Engineering Corp. Ltd., Skanska AB, TechnipFMC, Actividades de Construcción y Servicios, Bechtel, China Communications Construction Company, Larsen and Toubro, Bouygues, Skanska AB, Technip FMC, Balfour Beatty, Kiewit Corporation, Laing O’Rourke, Whiting-Turner, Turner Construction, Turner Construction, Gilbane Building Company.


QuoteToMe, RatedPower, Rockease, Ruedata, SafeAI Inc SiteHive, SkyMul, SMART CAST, StructShare, Synhelion Tellux, The Building Machines Company ThroughPut.

Berock Ventures Limited, David Walter Limited, Inocon group limited, Asanduff Construction Company, Limerica Ghana limited, Core Construction Limited, Facol Limited, Jodi Construction Limited, Joshob Construction, Casapulo Ghana Limited, Asterion, De Simone Limited, The Zakhem Group, Plastic Route, SDCL Ghana, Maypat Dew Ventures, Mosag0s Group, Brick n Build, Elzo Building Construction Company, Gapson Company Limited, DaLion Royal, Harena Home Depot, A&L Construction Co. Ltd, Green Opal Properties, More Beyond Tiles Works


  • Increase in Collapse Structures 
    There is a rise in building collapse in Nigeria. It results from the use of defective or substandard building materials, a lack of required technical knowledge, noncompliance with building codes and standards, the use of nonprofessionals, and the high level of corruption that has ravaged every sphere of the construction industry, including government and private parastatals.

    Need for Affordable Housing
    The level of housing shortage in Nigeria has not been adequately emphasised, which is a significant issue affecting housing delivery. This issue is due to housing managers in Nigeria providing incomplete and inaccurate statistics and data. In addition, costs of building materials, low purchasing power, security issues, economic contraction, general inflation, high unemployment rate, and naira devaluation are some of the significant obstacles to affordable housing delivery in Nigeria.

    According to Research Gate, in terms of funding, an estimated 12 trillion nairas (about 45.3 billion pounds) are needed to solve the existing housing scarcity problem. Furthermore, it is projected that in a 20-year time frame, an average of 56 trillion nairas (approximately 211 billion pounds) are needed each year to meet the demand for housing in Nigeria.

    Shortage of Labour and Skills
    There is a generational shift in interest in the construction industry. Today, there’s little interest in construction craftsmanship among millennials who prefer to take on savvier roles such as computer-aided design and less bricklaying. The rise in project complexity and lack of an experienced labour force have resulted in construction quality issues, employee safety concerns, and project delays. To address this problem are mentoring and construction staffing agencies. The mentorship programmes would provide guidance, training, and resources for people looking to enter the industry (undergrad students, recent college graduates, and current skilled workers). These programmes allow for the recruitment of additional potential employees. On the other hand, staffing agencies will be in charge of pre-screening and hiring skilled workers.

    Worksite Safety
    The most difficult challenge in the construction industry is ensuring that the various activities and tasks associated with construction do not endanger human lives. New hazards may appear like the weather or the landscape changes during a construction project, and old risks may take on a new form.

    One of the reasons there are so many slips, stumbles, twisted ankles, and same-level falls on construction sites is because of the environmental changes. Furthermore, construction workers fail to make the necessary mental adjustments to avoid injury. For construction safety managers, this is one of the most frustrating issues. Worksite safety is nearly impossible unless human factors training is integrated into construction safety.

    Need for Gender Diversity
    It is worth noting that women have made enormous strides in the workplace over the last few decades in career advancement and the fight for pay equality. However, while most industries have seen a gradual increase in female employees, attracting women to the construction industry has been particularly difficult. According to a 2014 NCA construction capacity survey, women were underrepresented in the construction industry, accounting for only 19 per cent of the workforce and owning only 7 per cent of construction contracting firms.

    A crucial issue in the construction industry is unconscious gender bias/gender discrimination. In addition, women who want to or have ventured into construction have been discouraged or deterred by gender bias. Therefore, the industry must address these issues if gender diversity is to be achieved.

    • Building Information Modeling: These are technologies used to create and manage the digital representation of a construction project. It provides access to data and information on a building or structure as its digital twin through which informed decisions can be made to simulate outcomes before it is implemented in the project site.


    • AI and Machine Learning: Optimized workflows are essential to well-running projects and teams in the Architecture,  Engineering & Construction (AEC) industry. However, due to the complexity of construction, workflows tend to be disconnected and manual. The three most significant areas within optimized construction workflows are communication, data, and transparency. AI is making it easier to succeed across all three of these areas, resulting in greater productivity and profits. 
    • Resource & Workforce Management: Solutions like these allow companies to access metrics and forecasting analytics to better allocate resources to the right projects at the right time. Workforce management solutions are especially important in our current economy, where volatile markets require firms to be as precise and efficient in their operations as possible.
    • 3D Printing: We can expect to see 3D printing technologies continue to mature and grow in the future. As companies look for ways to improve quality control, address skilled labor shortages, and explore advanced designs, 3D printing will be here to help them make it a success.
    • Digital Twins: A digital twin is a digital replica of a physical entity, including its potential and current assets, systems, data, processes, workflows, people, and devices. Digital twins gather data through sensors to better understand a physical structure and then create its duplicate. Since almost 80% of a building’s lifetime value is realized during operations, the data and insights provided by digital twins help owners better maintain their facilities, streamline operations, and improve capital planning.
    • Advanced Take Off and Estimating Tools: The days of putting together quantity takeoffs and estimates using spreadsheets are over. Or at least, they should be. The rise of advanced takeoff and estimating tools are helping construction pros implement these processes more efficiently and with greater accuracy.
    • Construction Robotics: Construction continues to be one of the most labour-intensive industries. It includes many repetitive and time-consuming tasks which can be done faster through robotics and automation. Construction robots also reduce human-induced error and losses due to fatigue. For example, collaborative robots automate bricklaying, welding, rebar tying, painting, and many such repetitive tasks with great precision. Robotics solutions also automate heavy equipment and fleets for excavation, transportation, load lifting, concrete works, and demolition. This increases construction worker safety and significantly reduces operational time. 


  • The Architect and The Painter 
  • Shawshank Redemption
  • Impossible Engineering 
  • Die Hard
  • Six Figures, No Suit
  • Construction of Villa Alem 


  • Elevating Construction Superintendents
  • Skip the Flip: Secrets the 1% Know About Real Estate Investing
  • Construction Management JumpStart
  • Fix This Next
  • Constructive Finance


  • The Art of Construction
  • Construction Brothers
  • The Construction Engineering Show
  • Future Construct
  • Connecting Construction
  • The ConTech Crew
  • The Construction Life
  • A Viewpoint on Construction


  • Nigeria BuildExpo
  • The Big 5 Construct
  • Association of the Wall and Ceiling Industry Annual Convention 
  • Groundbreaking Women in Construction Conference
  • Cape Construction Expo 


  • ENR
  • Building Design and Construction
  • Construction Executive Magazine
  • ConstrucTech
  • Construction and Engineering Digest (CED) Magazine
  • Journal of Construction Project Management and Innovation

Fashion, Events and Lifestyle

Overview of the Fashion, Events and Lifestyle Industry

Humans are social beings, and at the centre of this socialisation are the ways people meet their needs for expression and interaction with others. These have, over some time, resulted in arts, culture, beauty, entertainment and everyday living. These activities may have resulted from the human and social needs for expression, pleasure, and survival. They make up the Lifestyle, Fashion and Events Industry. 

The fashion industry encompasses the design, manufacture, distribution, marketing, sales and promotion of clothing, footwear, bags, accessories and products for styling, from shoe factories in Mumbai and tailoring shops in Onitsha to runways for fashion models in Monaco. It is a ubiquitous industry at the bedrock of any economy that individuals, business owners, SMEs and large enterprises play. Other fashion-related areas that have become sizeable as independent industries include jewellery, beauty and cosmetics, watches, and hairstyling. 

Events provide a social platform for human expression and interaction. The industry consists of individuals and companies that plan, organise, set up, and run events. These include parties, conferences, roadshows, musical tours, political rallies and other purposeful gatherings of people. The success of these events typically requires event organisers and planners, event compere/hosts/moderators, security service providers, and sometimes entertainers, who are all participants in this industry.

Fashion and events are most times reflections of an individual’s or group’s style, preferences, values, way of life and social status. Services and products that provide or support these reflections make up the Lifestyle industry. Companies in other industries now also play in the lifestyle industry by making their brands connect with the way consumers aspire to live. These are usually reflected in their product design and marketing communications as they seek to inspire and connect with their target markets. Entertainment industries such as music, media and films also intersect significantly with the Fashion, Events & Lifestyle industry.

Fashion & Jewelry Designer, Textile designer, Fashion writer/illustrator, Pattern cutter/grader, Stylist, Personal stylist/personal shopper, Fashion buyer, Fashion merchandiser, Visual merchandiser, Fashion writer, Graphic designer, Fashion photographer/filmmaker, Fashion blogger/vlogger, Model, Marketing or Communications Manager, Wardrobe assistant, Costume designer, Makeup artist/hairstylist, Studio manager , Retail manager, Copywriter, Social media assistant, Event manager, Teacher/lecturer, Further research, Engraver, Polisher, Bench jeweller, Metalworker, Jewellery consultant, Event & Wedding Planner, Event Space or Venue Managers, Catering Services Manager

Highest Paying Jobs
The highest paying jobs in the industry are: Fashion or Jewelry Store manager, eCommerce Manager, Product Manager, Fashion Designer / Stylist and Event Planner.

    • Creativity & Critical Thinking 
      In every part of the industry, creativity and an eye for what is visually appealing are essential; being creative is not only for designers but for everyone in the sector. Your originality and sense of style can influence written materials and promotional commercials. It’s also necessary to think critically to solve difficulties, produce the best materials, and decide on a marketing strategy to generate more sales.

      Teamwork & Networking
      One of the essential fashion abilities you’ll need is working well with others. You’ll be part of a large team (design, production, marketing, etc.) that collaborates closely on significant projects and meetings. You’ll need to work with them to identify problems and develop solutions rather than pointing fingers and blaming team members. To obtain first dibs on new products, you’ll also need to network with manufacturers and fashion icons and celebrities to promote your brand.

      Initiative & Enterprise
      The ability to find new opportunities and ideas and put them into practice. Having initiative and an enterprising ability is a much-needed skill to improve how businesses operate. Employers need to have someone to adapt to new work situations by seeing ways to make valuable changes. It also involves having the self-motivation to develop your design ideas or proposals and organising events.

      Communication & Persuasion
      Fashion is constantly communicating – it listens to culture and dictates it, and the same with events. You must be able to share your creative ideas, concept or proposals, both with team players and your customers. The success rate of products depends on marketing. Marketers (Digital or Traditional Marketers) must communicate the product’s value excellently to their customers and persuade them to buy from their brand, among several options. 

      Industry Awareness, Continual Learning & Adaptation
      Being aware of trends in the industry involves spotting new designs, fabrics being used, understanding the changing customer needs, new technologies being adopted in the industry, etc. One must continuously learn and adapt to keep up with all these trends. Learning new skills in design & marketing and integrating new technology software would help keep up with the digitisation in the industry.

      Digital Skills 
      Having digital skills is an advantage in this industry as several fashion, events and lifestyle companies are going online. In addition, developing technical skills like graphic design using digital tools, content creation/Writing for communication and social media engagement. And also, data analysis for understanding sales reports and markets will be an added advantage.

A degree in fashion is one of the best routes to secure a good position within the industry. 

While you can work in this industry without a degree in fashion design, having such degrees can be relevant and give you an edge. But beyond a formal degree in fashion, working in this industry requires you to have a deep interest & passion and also be ready to develop creative skills. 

Learning in this industry can be formal or informal. There are registered fashion schools with structured curriculum and instructors that teaches fashion and award certificate to their student. Also, several people have been trained informally through apprenticeship, and they get a certificate for training.

Attending a school of fashion can help you launch your dream career. Attending a fashion school will open your eyes to some basics of fashion designing, how to brand your products, and how to best market your products.

Some famous fashion school in the country and diaspora is Fashion Institute of Technology (US), School of Arts, Design and Architecture (Finland), Parsons: Fashion, Art and Design School (US), Paris College of Art (Paris), Fashion & Art Academy House of Henri, Legsapparel Fashion School Port Harcourt, Zaris Fashion and Style Academy, Mickeyoma Design Fashion Academy, etc.

Bachelor degrees include: 

Bachelor of Design – Product Design + Fashion Design, Bachelor in Textile, Design, Bachelor in Design, Fashion and Visual Arts, BA (Hons) Fashion, BA in Jewelry Design, BA Honours Fashion Design, Bachelor of Arts in Fashion.

Other Degree/Certification include:

Diploma in Fashion Design, Fashion buying and merchandising, fashion styling, fashion photography, Jewellery design, fashion journalism, and fashion management.

The fashion industry is highly competitive. Incredible creatives and bold strategists work together to keep up with rapidly changing trends and a demanding audience with multiple choices.

Volunteer, don’t wait for a “Job”
Volunteer to put your designs to work for individuals who can give you visibility even if the earnings are insignificant. Manage events when the opportunity arises. Volunteering will help you put your creativity to use while gaining experience.

Fashion internship
Nothing would beat real-world experience, even if you studied something fashion-related. However, you have to be okay with starting at the bottom. A fashion internship will round off your theoretical knowledge and develop your skills. An internship often serves as an extended job interview and could land you a permanent position. It doesn’t have to be a big company, event tailoring shops and fashion houses could be a good starting point.

Keep up with fashion trends
Stay abreast with ha in the fashion industry by following or subscribing to a few big shots or media houses on Twitter, Instagram, and Youtube and keeping track of innovation and trends from the hot topics.

Leverage Social media 
Knowing how to harness diverse opportunities on the social platform will help. Follow your favourite brands and designers to keep up with their products and learn from their innovative ways of doing things. Share your work on social media sites to build your brand image and opportunities, and engage with fellow enthusiasts in the industry.

Build your portfolio of work 
It can be a notebook, a personal website or even a Behance page; your social media can also be your gallery of work. Having your portfolio is essential as it shows your consistency in creating good products or planning beautiful events. In addition, it will help you reach out to new prospects as it will help them navigate your designs or the events you’ve planned efficiently.

Be open to opportunities
You may start marketing and end up in design. You may begin working with a lifestyle magazine and become a dress designer. The possibilities for growth in the industry are vast. You should be open to new opportunities.

Working in the industry requires you to be social; this will help you keep informed of trends and network with other fashion enthusiasts. Working in this industry also requires you to be passionate.

While most roles are in marketing, with a few designers working in the backend, the lowest entry is sales. However, being open to opportunities is needed as roles in other segments might be available.

The events industry can be very intense. It requires a lot of planning and visitation of vendors and venues and coming up with creative ideas to beat competitors. 

Large corporations often train their workers to keep up with trends and be more productive. Event companies also train their staff on work ethics.

Cosmetic Executive Women
Fashion Group International
Council of Fashion Designers of America 
Association of Textiles 
Apparel and Materials Professionals 
American Apparel and Footwear Association 
International Textile and Apparel Association
World Fashion Organization (WFO)

Association of Ghana Apparel Manufacturers 


Tidjane Thiam, Janet Yellen, Okonjo Iweala, Warren Buffet, J.P Morgan, James Dimon, Josef Ackermann,

Ghana Career Champions
Nana and Afua Dabanka, Kristen and Kofi Essel, Leslie Wiredu, Kweku Bediako, Elisha Boie, Aisha Ayensu, Tonyi Senayah

Cosmetic Executive Women 
Fashion Group International
Council of Fashion Designers of America 
Association of Textiles 
Apparel and Materials Professionals 
American Apparel and Footwear Association 
International Textile and Apparel Association
World Fashion Organization (WFO)

Ministry of Tourism, Arts and Culture


Brands should not be confused with companies. Companies typically own brands, and a single company can have multiple brands. A company with one or more brands can also bear the name of its flagship brand. 

Chanel, LVMH Moët Hennessy Louis Vuitton, Christian Dior SE, Alexander Wang, Diane von Furstenberg, Kate Spade, Marc Jacobs, H&M, Burberry Group plc, Prada S.p.A, Nike, Hermès International Société, Ralph Lauren Corp, Tory Burch, Calvin Klein, Kering SA, Armani, Urban Outfitters, Donna Karan, Levi Strauss & Co., L’Orea, Under Armour, Inc., Quiksilver Inc., Brunello Cucinelli, Coach, Inc., Lululemon Athletica Inc.

The International fashion market is led by Inditex, LVMH, H&M, Nike, VF Corporation, Richemont, Adidas, Fast Retailing, Abercrombie & Fitch, Prada, Gap, Dior, Urban Outfitters, and Burberry.

Events companies include Bassett Events, Inc., MKG, Colin Cowie, David Tutera, A Perfect Event, Rafanelli Events, Oren Co, Wonderland, Eventive, Royal DSM, Dreamsmith Events, Meat & Potato, Liquid media live events, Rockitfish Ltd, Firebird Events Ltd, Alpha Events.

Monaa, christie Brown Label, Horseman Shoes, Ophelia Crossland Designs Ltd, Lokko House, Ethical Apparel Africa, Debonair Afrik, Winglow Fashion Academy, Kwabs College, 5 Star advertising and Model Agency, Ghana Textiles Printing Company Ltd, Passion Exhibit Modeling Agency, Purple Kouture, POK Footwear, Hi5 Modeling Agency, Aslin Fashion, ExoPa Model Agency, Afra K Fashion School, Regent Model Management, Yorkcity Fashion Academy, Redlipsticks, Vicky’s Kente, Wear Nation, Alanzaro Fashion Design, Cofiegold Clothing Ltd, Bash Digital Hub, DimpleKothing, Rissemma Company Limited, Top Class Talent Management, ScramDucas Consult 


  • Fintechs as Challengers
    Startups leveraging data and technology are bringing innovations to markets at an unprecedented rate for traditional financial service providers and regulators to deal with. However, several incumbent financial institutions respond by rolling out fintech offerings to their customer base. Some of these are exclusively from them, while others partner with Fintechs.

    Evolving Customer Expectations 
    Customers now expect personalised and instant access to a menu of financial services. They also expect services to be accessible across multiple digital channels and their requests promptly attended to.

    Fraud and Cybercrime
    The financial sector is exposed to several threats from within and outside the financial system. The complexity of fraud and money laundering operations continues to evolve, putting the deposit of customers, operations and reputation of financial firms at risk.

    Underserved Customers
    Agency and digital banking services have helped close the financial inclusion gap in several developing countries. However, most of the population is still underserved due to the lack of robust financial services to cater for their needs. Access to credit at an affordable rate remains a challenge for individuals and small to medium-sized businesses.

    Exposure to Global Risk 
    The connectedness of the global financial system has made economic systems vulnerable to shocks that may come from anywhere in the world. For example, default on loans in the US may lead to a domino effect on financial markets in Europe and catalyse to become a global financial crisis.

    Tougher Regulatory Environment
    The financial sector is highly regulated. In both good and bad times of the economy, the financial sector is a target of increasing legislation and policies and has to adhere to the government’s strict compliance measures. The globalisation of finance also implies that many of them are exposed to the regulatory environment in international markets.

    Legacy Systems
    Financial institutions with a long history of operation are significant players in any nation’s financial service industry. But unfortunately, a majority of them are challenged with legacy systems of existing software, processes, and business infrastructure, which can be challenging to integrate, change or adapt to new technologies.

    The volatility of the World Economy
    From the devastating effect of COVID-19, mounting rate of inflation, fluctuation in the value of currencies and the foreign reserves of Nations, to wars among nations, the financial sector’s stability is threatened by uncertain times.

    • Digitigitisation is on the high in the following areas of finance:

      • AI for interfacing with customers, delivering advisory services, and making product recommendations in banking.
      • The emergence of blockchain technologies for trust management and digital currencies in business finance. 
      • Data-driven decisions such as calculation of premiums based on predictive analytics in insurance.
      • Robotic Process Automation and advanced AI technologies for automating manual accounting processes.
      • Algorithmic stock trading – quants in investment banking.
      • Loan prediction and credit scoring based on historical financial records, behavioural analysis, and big data in banking.
      • Automation of accounting workflows to reduce the burden of manual data entry.

Women’s Wear Daily 
Business of Fashion
Ovation Magazine
City People
Fast Fashion Magazine

Paris Fashion Week 
Milan Fashion Week
New York Fashion Week
London Fashion Week 
Arab Fashion Week
Accra/Cape Town/Lagos/Rwanda Fashion Week
Morocco Beauty Expo
Cosmetics and Hair Exhibition Nigeria

Style and Trends. Bande à Par
Working in Fashion 
Industry Insights. The Business of Fashion Podcast
Sustainability Matters. The Wardrobe Crisis
Brand Chatter. Chanel Connects
Event Manager
Event Tech

The Little Dictionary of Fashion by Christian Dior
Coco Chanel: The Illustrated World of a Fashion Icon by Megan Hess
Fashionopolis: The Price of Fast Fashion and the Future of Clothes by Dana Thomas
D.V. by Diana Vreeland
Worn in New York: 68 Sartorial Memoirs of the City by Emily Spivack

Devil Wears Prada 2006
Coco Before Chanel 2009
House of Gucci 2021
The First Monday in May
Phantom Thread 2017
Phone Swap 2012
Meet Joe Black
Crazy Rich Asians
The Wedding Planner

Extractive and Mining

Overview of the Extractive and Mining Industry

The extractive industry consists of businesses and operations that take the earth’s raw materials like metals, minerals, and oil and gas. It consists of two sectors: mining and oil and gas.

The mining industry encompasses companies, institutions, and government agencies involved in extracting metals such as gold, diamond, copper, lead, zinc, phosphate and other precious minerals such as coal, sapphires and rubies. The processes for extracting such minerals include drilling and pumping, quarrying, and mining. 

The oil and gas industry deals with exploring crude oil and natural gas. The main activities in the mining industry involve exploration (discovery of resources), development and mining. Additionally, it includes processing activities which encompass separating minerals from waste material, smelting and refining, and transport and storage. The extractive industry has proven to be a source of economic boom for many low to middle-income countries that do not have a well-developed service sector.

The extractive industry provides employment opportunities for skilled and unskilled labour. In addition, the sector is suitable for individuals who desire cross-disciplinary careers, especially in engineering. The technical jobs common to the extractive industry include:

Drilling engineer, Energy engineer, Engineering geologist, Geochemist, Geophysicist, GIS O, Hydrographic Surveyor, Mining engineer, Mudlogger, Petroleum engineer, Wellsite geologist, Mine safety manager, Finance specialist and manager, Process Engineer, Metallurgy planner, Analytical chemist., Energy manager, Environmental engineer,  Manufacturing engineer, Materials engineer, Quality manager, Divisional plant engineer, Process Control Engineer, Lithium Process scientist, Injection Specialist, Data Engineer, Communications Technicians, Machine Learning Engineer, Production Systems Support, Workshop Technician, Mining Technology, Implementation Specialist.

The highest paying jobs in the extractive industry listed by the Global Talent Energy Index are Project Manager, Drilling Supervisor, Construction Manager, Reservoir Engineer, Drilling Engineer, Geophysicist, Mechanical Engineer, HSE Manager, Project Manager and Production Manager, respectively.

    • Analysis & Problem-Solving. 
      Companies in a highly competitive industry such as the extractive industry need workers who can break a problem into smaller ones. In addition, they need workers who can examine and evaluate information to conclude and provide logical solutions. These skills give the company a competitive edge.  
    • Continual Learning & Adaptation.
      Rapid innovation and change in technology require that workers learn new skills and adjust approaches, even workflow. Demonstrating that you can go with the flow while maintaining a positive attitude. 
    • Teamwork.
      Team players, people who connect, and make positive contributions to the group, are useful in technical and intensive work associated with the extractive industry. In addition, developing teamwork skills helps work with other workers and regulators.
    • Initiative & Enterprise
      Employees who can recognize opportunities to solve organizational problems and take the initiative will boost the innovative capacity of any team and set the pace for continual learning. 

A Bachelor’s degree in pure sciences and engineering is relevant for technical careers in the industry. However, undergraduate or graduate degrees in mining engineering or most engineering fields are in higher demand. Individuals from other disciplines such as law, accounting, economics, etc., can also play critical roles in the industry. Changing to a career in the extractive industry becomes easy with a postgraduate program in mining or petroleum. Still, most graduate programs require that applicants hold a Bachelor’s degree in a pure/applied sciences, environmental or engineering field. 

Oil and Gas Engineering, Civil and Construction Engineering, Extractive Metallurgy, Chemical Engineering, Energy Management, Chemical and Materials Engineering, Safety Engineering, Electrical Engineering, Geological Engineering.

Relevant postgraduate/ Masters degrees in the Extractive Industry include: 

Mining and geological Engineering, Sustainable Mining research,  Mining management,  Extractive industry Policy, Management and Regulations Extractive industry law.

Relevant professional certifications include

Project Management Professional

Health Safety and Environment

There are numerous jobs in the mining extractive industry that require little to no professional training. Still, these are labour-intensive, low paying jobs. The requirements to gain meaningful employment in the extractive industry vary by position. Suppose you are interested in becoming an engineer or a mineral scientist, you must have at least a bachelor’s degree in a field such as chemistry, mechanical, chemical, electrical or civil engineering, geology, or a closely related subject. Health and safety workers need at least a diploma or Bachelor’s degree in healthcare-related disciplines. Gaining middle-level management roles such as project and site managers usually require years of experience and additional postgraduate degrees. Internship opportunities and training can be considered work experience in this industry.

Most Companies in the extractive industry operate non-stop throughout the week by implenting shifts. Depending on the arrangements, workers may work long shift for many days and take more days off, or work in a regular shift arrangement. On the average, workers in the mining industry globally work around 45 hours per week.

Depending on the role and nature of work, employees in the extractive industry can either work in mining sites and quarries extracting or loading vehicles. Engineers, and field managers usually shuttle between offices and mining locations, while administrative roles such as accountants will work basically in offices.

According to collegegradcom, working on extraction sites usually requires stamina and physical agility due to the need to stand for long periods of time, lift heavy materials, climb rough surfaces. The work conditions are far from satisfying, from poorly lit mines to dangerous weather, exposure to dust and gases, and the possibility of explosion or collapse of mines.  Conditions in modern mines are getting better due to automation of some activities.

The Society of Petroleum Engineers
International Petroleum Industry Environmental Conservation Association (IPIECA)
Institute of Materials, Minerals and Mining
American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical, and Petroleum Engineers 
Association of Mining Analysts
Minerals Engineering Society
Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration (SME)

Ghana Mine Workers Union, Ghana Chamber of Mines


Francis Eduku, Shadrach Adjetey Sowah, Margaret Aniawu-Asumakah, Benjamin Nii Ayi Aryee, Eric Asubonteng


Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)
International Council on Mining and Metals (ICMM) The Intergovernmental Forum on Mining, Minerals, Metals and Sustainable Development (IGF) ·
World Petroleum Council
Mine Safety and Health Administration
United States Bureau of Mines
United State Department of Labor

Office of Surface Mining, Reclamation and Enforcement
Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative.

Ghana Integrated Bauxite and Aluminium Development Authority, Minerals Commission, Ministry of Lands and Natural Resources, Geological Survey Department, Environmental Protection Agency


Newmount, Sothern Copper, Freeport McMoran, BHP Group, Rio Tinto Group, MMC Norilsk Nickel, Glencore, Anglo American, PJSC Polyus, Arcelormittal, Novolipetsk Steel, Tenaris, Pao Severstal, ExxonMobil, Marathon Petroleum, Chesapeake Energy, Chevron, Saudi Aramco, Gzprom, Equinor (Norway), Western Gas Partners LP, Kinder Morgan, Valero Energy, Royal Dutch Shell, BP, Devon Energy, Occidental, Enbridge, Marathon Petroleum, Eni, ConocoPhillips, Rosneft, Pemex, Suncor Energy, Indian Oil Corporation, Reliance Industries, Kuwait Petroleum Corporation, Phillips 66, PetroChina, Lukoil, Sinopec, China National Petroleum Corporation, Thor Explorations.

Ghana Manganese Company Ltd, Perseus Mining Ltd, Asanko Gold Mine, Abosso GoldFields Tarkwa Mine, Golden Star Mines, Kinross, Paramount Mining, Kosmos Energy, PW Mining, KHL Gold Dust & Bars Mining Company, Newmont Golden Ridge Ltd – Akyem Mine, Newmont Ghana Gold Limited – Ahafo Mine, Adamus Resource, AngloGold Ashanti Limited, Adamus Resources Limited, Chirano Gold Mines Ltd, Ghana Bauxite Company Ltd, Chifeng Gold Group, Kibi GoldFields, Xtra Gold, Ironridge Resources, B2Gold Corp, Pelangio Exploration, Signature Metals, Azumah Resources, Cassius Mining, Gulf Industrials Ltd, Noble Mineral Resources, Castle Peak Mining, Pan African

  • Environmental pollution
    Air and water pollution is common in the mining industry as unrefined chemicals are regularly released into the environment, causing several respiratory system diseases and triggering allergies. Similarly, sediments from soil erosion and pollutants from underground mines find their way into water bodies and threaten aquatic life.

    Shrinking finance due to ESG (Environmental, Social, and Governance) being observed by financial service providers
    Due to the enormous impact of mining on Climate change, governments have set up several task forces. These task forces monitor how companies disclose climate-related risks, especially when seeking finance. Unfortunately, this has drastically reduced the rate of investment in the industry.

    Instability in several resources-rich nations
    Several richest mineral deposits in the world are located in regions plagued by violence and political instability. This poses challenges like the safety of workers, unstable prices of commodities, and recession. 

    High level of risk, conflicts and threats to human life.
    In many mineral-rich African countries, there are often company-community conflicts. In addition, the distribution of profits and dividends shows inequality and exclusion of residents who are customary owners of the mineral-rich sites. Furthermore, the poor condition of mining sites and the risk of accidents and explosions pose threats to human life.

    Low investment due to Government regulations
    Due to ESG, companies in the extractive industry face the challenge of regularly monitoring and reporting environmental, social or governance risks. Moreover, it determines whether they can get investors, obtain permits, or collaborate with Communities and NGOs. 

    • Internet of Things (IoT)
      Technologies such as wireless networks, low-cost sensors, virtual sensors, and big data are used to implement the interconnection and control of Mining equipment from any position. Functions of IoT may include tracking loading status/position of trucks, monitoring water level/rock stability underground, and monitoring workers for emergency situations.

      Big data and Real-time data Analysis
      Real-time data concerns the speed of delivering data to and fro between systems and users. Extractive Companies use predictive maintenance systems that rely on real-time and big data to track the operation and forecast the breakdown of equipment like belt conveyors, trucks, etc. Measuring dust exposure, carbon monoxide detection to evaluate hazard, simulation and visualization of the mining process are other uses of big data.

      3D Printing
      3D printing can be used to reproduce spare parts and special components, to prevent downtime from machine breakdown. This technology can also be used for illustration because data from drones, satellite, etc can be fed into the 3D printer to create models of ore deposits.

      Repetitive  tasks in the extractive industry such as monitoring trucks are increasingly being automated through the use of technology like GPS. Automation may soon be applied to labour-intensive tasks such as loading ore and waste if limitations such as unstable rock conditions at Mining sites can be overcome.

      Cyber Security and Encryption
      The interconnection of Mining sites and equipment through IoT has made the extractive Industry vulnerable to cyber attacks which can cause significant financial loss, downtime, and even threats to life. This made it necessary for extractive companies to invest in security technologies like blockchain, and data backup.

The Extractive Industries and Society: Journal
Routledge Studies of the Extractive Industries and Sustainable Development: Book series

There will be Blood.
The Men Who Built America
Blood Diamond
Lord of War
October Sky

None in Nigeria. What of NIETI events?
Extractive Industry Geology (EIG) Conference
Mines and Money Connect
Investing in African Mining Indaba

Rethinking Resources
The Drill Down
Oilfield Basics
IHS Markit Energy Trends
Shade magazine

Oil on Water by Helon Habila
The Heartless Stone
In The Last Empire: De Beers, Diamonds, and the World
Extractive Industries by Tony Addison and Alan Roe
Collaborative Governance in Extractive Industries in Africa
Oil, Gas and Mining by Michael C. Stanley and Peter D. Cameron

Health and Medical Sciences

Overview of the Health and Medical sciences Industry

Health and Medical Sciences is a cluster of professionals who promote health, wellness and diagnosis, nutrition, medicine, patient care, disease, technology, and health-related issues and outcomes. Health and medical science professionals can work in both research and practical capacities. They can become physician or physician assistants, nurses or nursing assistants and other careers such as biotechnology researchers, surgical assistants, technicians etc.

Healthcare focuses on the wellbeing and the quality of life of people. It does this by considering all the factors that may impact these outcomes in a society or an environment. Medical sciences focus on the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease, illness, injury. Medical science professionals are key players in the healthcare sector—it remains one of the largest and fastest-growing globally.

Health and Medical Sciences are a group of professions that promote health and wellness and disease diagnosis. 

It also involves nutrition, medicine, patient care, disease, technology, and health-related issues and outcomes. Healthcare professionals can work in both research and practical capacities. For example, they can become physicians or physician assistants, nurses or nursing assistants. In addition, they can have careers such as biotechnology researchers, surgical assistants, technicians etc.

Healthcare and medical sciences focus on people’s well-being and quality of life. It focuses on all the factors that may impact these outcomes in a society or an environment. Medical sciences diagnose, treat, and prevent disease, illness, and injury. As a result, medical science professionals are key players in the healthcare sector—it remains one of the largest and fastest-growing globally.


The modern health care industry consists of many areas. Interdisciplinary teams of trained professionals and paraprofessionals work together to meet people’s healthcare needs.

The career pathways in the field include the following:

  • Biotechnology
  • Diagnostic Service
  • Health Informatics
  • Hospital/Healthcare Administration
  • Public Health
  • Therapeutic Service
  • Support Service
  • Biotechnology

Some of the essential technical skills for health and medical science professionals which vary across specialisations are:

  • Taking/reading/interpreting vital signs
  • Recommendations on Over The Counter prescriptions
  • Inserting Intravenous and catheters
  • Drawing blood
  • Reading medical/health records, electrocardiograms (EKGs), X-rays and MRIs.
  • Clinical Knowledge.

These include:

  • Critical thinking: decisions on patients can be the difference between life, death, recovery or permanent damage. Therefore, decisions must be thorough for the best possible outcome.
  • Communication & persuasion: This profession requires people that can communicate with empathy. People that can persuade patients to follow through on the best possible decisions. Professionals discuss the results of diagnosis and treatment options with patients and give public health lectures to the community. 
  • Continual learning & adaptation: healthcare and medical professionals must stay abreast of new developments and adjust to changes within their work environment or location change. 
  • Professionalism: Caregivers must maintain the right relationship with patients while also keeping boundaries and ensure data management and information with confidentiality. 
  • Self-awareness & management: the work environment can be intense, succumbing to pressure can be consequential. Therefore, healthcare and medical professionals must maintain the right attitude at all times. They must be skilled in managing time, resources and the stress levels of themselves and colleagues.

The modern health care industry consists of many areas. Interdisciplinary teams of trained professionals and paraprofessionals work together to meet people’s healthcare needs.

The career pathways in the field include the following:

  • Biotechnology
  • Diagnostic Service
  • Health Informatics
  • Hospital/Healthcare Administration
  • Public Health
  • Therapeutic Service
  • Support Service
  • Biotechnology

World Medical Association, World Dental Federation, International Council of Nurses, World Physiotherapy, International Federation of Biomedical Laboratory Science, World Health Organization (WHO), World Bank, United Nations Children Fund (UNICEF), Doctors Without Borders / Medecins Sans Frontieres (MSF), The International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement.

Ghana Medical Association, Ghana Health Administrators, Christian Health Association of Ghana 


Sarah Zagbaki, Mbi Epse Ojong Alice Enekegbe, Irene Agyepong, Joshua Appiah, Beatrice Amposah, Daniel Adjei Boakye


Ghana Medical Association, Ghana Health Administrators, Christian Health Association of Ghana, National Health Insurance Authority, Ministry of Health, Ghana Health Service, Nursing and Midwifery Council, Medical and Dental Council  


Nyaho Medical Centre, Lister Hospital, Sycamore Hospital, TrustCare, Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital, Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital, Akai House Clinic, Sweden Ghana Medical Centre, 37 Military Hospital, Asafo Boakye Specialist, UQ Specialist Medical Services, Trust Hospital, Sanford Health, GPHA Clinic, County Hospital, Imperial Health, A1 Hospital, New Crystal Health Services, EuraCare Hospital, Ruma Fertility Centre, C&J Medicare and Diagnostic Centre, Medifem Hospital, Madamfo Hospital, Holy Trinity Hospital, Aniwaa Hospital, Asbury Hospital, Afari Hospital, Wara Clinic


  • Inaccessibility of quality health care
    Most Nigerians live in poverty and primarily have to pay for health care services. Free health care services are poorly implemented, do not become fully operational, and sometimes only last a few years. Digital health innovation can reduce healthcare costs and expand access to quality healthcare.

    Insufficient Financial Investment
    Government spending on healthcare is poor compared to other African countries. Private sector spending is also not enough for the massive population requiring quality healthcare. National Health Scheme (NHS) through the Health Maintenance Organizations (HMOs) have not been able to solve the problem, especially regarding public access. Health insurance, especially digital health insurance, is where innovation can occur. 

    Poor Health Infrastructure
    The Nigerian healthcare sector suffers from poor infrastructure. Loss of lives is a common consequence of these. As a result, healthtech startups are innovating around this. For example, LifeBank, a healthcare technology and logistics company, facilitate blood transmission from labs across the country to patients and doctors in hospitals. More innovation, especially those utilising digital tools, can help circumvent this problem. At the same time, the government can increase its spending on healthcare and create policies to support healthcare.

    Infant and Maternal Death
    Nigeria consists 2.4 per cent of the world’s population. However, it currently contributes to 10% of global deaths for pregnant mothers. The latest figures from UNICEF show a maternal mortality rate of 576 per 100,000 live births, the fourth-highest on Earth. Approximately 262,000 babies die at birth, the global second-highest national total. Infant mortality currently stands at 69 per 1,000 live births, while for under-fives, it rises to 128 per 1,000 live births. 

    It is an area for innovation as most of the deaths are preventable. For example, Agnes a feature phone app that provides antenatal education and 24-hour access to pregnant women and mothers. This access to professional healthcare workers, education, and specialised telemedicine reduce infant and maternal deaths.

    Lack of sufficient health personnel
    There is a significant brain drain in the healthcare sector. As a result, more and more people have less access to quality healthcare.

    Innovation around this has been using telemedicine to access healthcare. More innovation should happen to circumvent this.

    Data Collection 
    The dearth of standardised data is a significant problem in Nigerian healthcare. As a result, the government can not make sound policies. Accurate Medical histories are hard to get, especially in emergencies, leading to the wrong diagnosis or treatment. There needs to be innovation around data collection and fragmentation.

    Fake Drugs
    Fake drugs are a serious global problem. In developing countries like Nigeria, it is life-threatening. However, the government has put up systems to solve this. It remains a problem. Some Healthtech startups like Medsaf have taken on this challenge. It is a platform that aggregates trustworthy international and local drug manufacturers and hospitals, clinics, and pharmacies in Nigeria. More innovation needs to ensure that Over-the-counter drugs are safe for average Nigerians.

Complications: A Surgeon’s Notes on an Imperfect Science by Atul Gawande
The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks by Rebecca Skloot
The Emperor of All Maladies: A Biography of Cancer by Siddhartha Mukherjee, MD.
The Digital Health Revolution by Kevin Pereau (Author) and Barry Lenson (Editor)
Florence Nightingale: The Courageous Life of the Legendary Nurse by Catherine Reef 

The Doctor Paradox
Ted Talks: Science And Medicine.
The Future Of Healthcare
Medtech Talk Podcast
The Undifferentiated Medical Student

Pharma Intelligence
New Scientist
Modern Healthcare
The Lancet
Health Service Journal

Something the Lord Made (2004)
Code Black (Documentary, 2013)
Splice (2009)
Awakenings (1990)
Elysium (2013)
Grey’s Anatomy (Series)

Medic West Africa/East Africa
Africa Health Exhibition
North Africa Health Exhibition and Conference 
Arab Health Exhibition

Digitisation in healthcare and medical sciences include: 

  • Simulation in laboratories with mannequins and multimedia with virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR) for training practitioners and educating patients. 
  • Robotic surgery assists surgeons in performing complex procedures with more accuracy, precision and flexibility. It happens with minimally invasive surgery and sometimes with open surgical procedures. 
  • Telemedicine delivers healthcare services over a network without both practitioner and patient in the same place; this can happen in real-time (synchronous), store and forward (asynchronous), and remote monitoring.
  • Health trackers/wearables monitor the health condition of patients remotely. They can advise on lifestyle adjustments and give alerts in moments of emergency. These can also be the domain of mobile health (mHealth).
  • Healthcare/Medical/Biomedical informatics apply computation techniques and innovation to improving health and medical outcomes.
  • eHealth applications such as electronic patient records to patient-reported outcomes in mobile apps; are increasingly used in healthcare.
  • Chatbots provide the first point of contact to patients in collecting and analysing symptoms, infer possible issues and make recommendations on further actions.
  • Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning generate and analyse patient, clinician and health system data. They assist practitioners; to predict, prevent, screen and even diagnose diseases. They improve in areas such as medical image analysis and screenings.
  • Point-of-Care Medical Resources: these include medical and patient information, drug monographs, and medical calculators. These assist practitioners make evidence-based decisions to improve patient outcomes.
  • 3D Printing: the precise printing of tissues, organoids, prosthetics and surgical instruments.

Hospitality and Tourism

Overview of the Hospitality & Tourism Industry
The hospitality industry is made of providers of comfort, leisure, pleasure and luxury. In addition to these, tourism companies provide religious, cultural and exploratory learning experiences. The hospitality and tourism industry is highly connected with other industries such as transportation & logistics, food & beverages, fashion, events, and lifestyle.

Players in the industry provide guest management experiences. They include hotels, motels, resorts, travel inns, holiday parks, theme parks, apartment providers, restaurants, caters, bars & dafés, clubs, tea & coffee shops, travel agents, tour operators, cruises, car rentals, casinos, and live bans. Also emerging as vital players in the industry are technology companies that provide data and platforms to support the operations and marketing of these players and guest experiences in the industry.

Working in the hospitality & tourism industry does not require a formal degree. However, some degrees or certifications are available for entry-level positions or professionals in the industry.

Careers in the industry include:
Resort Management, Hotel Management, Restaurant/Food Chain Management, Cruise & Park Management, Concierge, Spa manager, Sommelier, Travel agent, Hotel sales coordinator.

Caterers, Chef, Executive Chef, Catering Manager, conference/Event manager, travel agent, concierge, facility Manager, Lodging Manager, Front Office Manager, Menu Planner, Restuarant Manager, Public Relations, Marketer, Travel Advisor, Travel Publicist, Hotel Manager, Marketing & Sales, Cruise Ship Management, Air Cabin Crew, Customer service, Tour Manager & Officer, Guest relations/service management, Reservations Agent, Special Events Manager, Wedding Coordinator, Executive Conference Manager, Food and Beverage Manager, Pastry Chef, Restaurant Manager, Maintenance Worker, Driver, Cafe Manager, Waiter.

Some of the highest-paying jobs are hotel, restaurant, travel and event management. Others are operation managers, executive chefs and casino directors, Entertainment managers, Event Planners, sommeliers, etc.

There is high compensation for star performers. Aim for top positions; you might need to start from the bottom for the experience.

  1. The Hospitality and Tourism industry places a premium on soft skills. Most of the jobs in this industry require you to have specific soft skills to work effectively and satisfy customers/clients.

  2. Communication and Persuasion
    Every day in the hospitality and tourism industry might bring you into contact with people from many walks of life, ages, ethnicities, and temperaments. As a result, communicating as a representative of the company while also speaking to clients to understand and relate is critical. Your persuasion skills will also assist you in persuading your prospect to return frequently and possibly bring in new customers.

  3. Creativity
    Creativity is one of the essential skills to have as an employee in this industry. Employers in this industry do not just want someone hardworking alone but someone who can be creative in delivering services. Therefore, your ability to find creative ways to do things will set you apart and aid your growth in this industry.
  4. Planning and Organisation
    In the hospitality and tourism industry, organisational and planning skills are highly demanded. Given the necessity to multitask and respond to last-minute requests, it is vital to organise client activities and timetables and maintain an organisational structure to complete daily tasks efficiently. Planning for each day and having a to-do list will assist you in achieving your objectives.
  5. Networking and Teamwork
    Unlike in many other businesses, networking in this industry encourages repeat business from clients. Good networking skills will help you develop loyal clients who want to return to the hotel/restaurant/tour, which will boost your career in the long run. Regardless of your function, you must work well with others to increase productivity, whether it’s within a specific hotel department, in a busy kitchen, or as part of the bar crew.
  6. Initiative: to anticipate and take care of customers’ needs
    Employees and managers must be successful in satisfying and even delighting consumers. Therefore, it is critical for a worker in this industry to anticipate and understand the demands of customers and to be able to provide a pleasant customer service experience. This ability will assist you in providing the most satisfactory service to your customers.
  7. Professionalism

    Most businesses in the hospitality sector rely on their employees to uphold their brand’s reputation when interacting with customers. Therefore, you must maintain a high level of professionalism at all times. It usually entails keeping your appearance clean and well-groomed, arriving on time for your shifts, and following rules and regulations. It also entails maintaining your calm and not reacting badly while dealing with an irritated or disgruntled customer, particularly after a long and exhausting shift.

  8. Self-awareness; to manage relations with customers
    Self-awareness involves understanding what you as an individual are good at while accepting that you still have plenty to learn. In addition, being self-aware will help in relating to clients. Knowing your strength and when to involve other team members’ expertise in your company will ultimately satisfy your clients.

  9. Digital Skills such as content development, digital marketing, and data understanding
    Having digital skills will be a plus for you as an employee in this industry. Data and technology are shaping the industry. To stay relevant, you must be able to use some essential digital tools. Understanding content creation, Digital Marketing, and how to run ads on social platforms will be an added advantage.


A majority of careers and roles in the industry do not require specific degrees. However, several specialised institutions provide training programmes in hospitality and tourism. Certificate courses for quick entry into the industry are available from organisations such as the Institute of Tourism Professionals in Nigeria, International Air transport Association (IATA), American Hotel and Lodging Association (AHLA), Consideration of Hotel and tourism certifications such as the UK CPD, Cornell School of Hotel Administration.

Hospitality/Tourism Management is available as a formal degree in higher learning institutions. So also is event Management. They are also accessible as postgraduate degrees. Having a second language can be an advantage, especially an internationally spoken one. Companies recruit graduates of any discipline if there are deep interest and some experience; they also offer on-the-job training.

Not all the roles require a formal qualification in hospitality, hotel and tourism, but having one is advantageous. 

Part-time jobs that provide opportunities for direct interaction with customers help. So also are volunteer roles to do so. For example, participate in event planning such as school events and social functions; take responsibility. 

Network with the staff of hotels, tourist sites and more. 

There is a low barrier regarding regulations for starting your own business. You can manage costs by being extremely creative. Still, it can be a competitive market. Therefore, customer retention with high satisfaction; attracting customers to change habits can be an uphill task. However, you can package perks or design tourism programmes and insure in financing to reduce the investment burden. In addition, you might consider consulting or media and content development, blogging or show hosting. 

Starting work with local hotels can provide a gateway to working with luxury hotels.

Large chain hotels or restaurants offer graduate management programmes for fast-track management positions and experience in various operations.

Working in this industry requires you to have a welcoming attitude to aid a good customer service experience.

There is a low entry barrier. However, it is quite a journey to the top.

Working in the industry provides freedom, mobility, and diversity; meeting new people from various life works brings exposure. Tips and bonuses are attractive; you also have better career opportunities. 

However, you must be ready to work long hours; it is a tough adjustment. High turnover, several part-time jobs. Need to meet varying tastes and demands; highly demanding in meeting expectations to satisfy. Also, due to the seasonal nature of the jobs in this industry, working hours might vary; you might have to work for more extended hours during some seasons.

The Confederation of Tourism & Hospitality
The World Travel & Tourism Council
Institute of Hospitality

Ghana Tourism Federation, Ghana Hotels Association, Tour Operators Union of Ghana, Travel and Tourist Agents Association


  • International
    Howard Schultz, Yerim Habib Sow, Amos Makaba Wekesa, Trevor Ward

    Bassem Toure, Samuel Obeng-Appah, Delphine Brew Hammond, Kofi Akpabli


World Tourism Organization (UNWTO)

Ghana Tourism Board, Ministry of Tourism, Arts and Culture, Ghana Tourism Authority, Bureau of Ghana Languages


Global Organisations
Marriot, Hilton, Oetker Collection, Accor Hotels, Melia Hotels and Resorts, Jumia Travel, Radisson Blu, Fairmont, Hilton Garden Inn, Sheraton, Four points, Swiss Hotel, Expedia, American Express, BCD Travel, Intercontinental Hotels Group (Golden Tulip), Deutsche Hospitality (Ibis), CUST, Fareportal, World Travel Holdings.
Startups: AirBnB, Jumia Travel, Trip Advisor, Groups 360, Selina, Lyric, Domio, Jin Jiang (Radisson Blu), Tsogo Sun (Riu), Hilton (Southern Sun), Troop, Flyto, Amenitiz, Hopin, Airalo.

African Companies/Startups
Simba Adventures, Transtrek Safaris, Icon Hotel Group Africa, Sun International, Legacy Hotel and Resorts, Serena Hotels, City Height, Mangalis, Aleph Hospitality, Carlson Rezidor.
Restaurants: Ocean Basket, Spurs Corporation
Startup: Jumia Travels, Wakanow, Travel Start
African Tour Companies: & Beyond, 360 Luxury marketing, A Tent with a View, AA Safaris & Tours, About Africa, Absolute Ethiopia Tours, Acacia Africa, Adventure Life, Adventure Africa, Africa Albisa, Africa Bound Safaris.

Kempinski Hotel Gold Coast City, Accra Luxury Apartments Cantonment, Zaina Lodge, Holy Trinity Spa and Health Farm, Royal Senchi Hotel and Resort, Labadi Beach Hotel, La Villa Boutique Hotel, Accra Marriott Hotel, Movenpick Ambassador Hotel Accra, Alisa Hotels North Ridge, The African Regent Hotel, Best Western Plus Atlantic Hotel, Tang Palace Hotel, Villa Monticello Boutique Hotel, Best Western Premier Accra Airport Hotel, Mahogany Lodge, Fiesta Residences Boutique & Serviced Apartments, Number One Oxford Street Hotel & Suites, La-Palm Royal Beach Resort, Airport View Hotel, Ridge Royal Hotel, Volta Hotel Akosombo, Accra City Hotel, Airside Hotel, Urbano Hotel, Afrocorni


  • Poor Infrastructure
    For tourism to develop in any country, some conditions must be met, such as a good road network, reliable electricity, internet access, and even potable water. Unfortunately, many of Nigeria’s most popular tourist attractions are located in rural areas that lack these basic infrastructures, deterring potential visitors from visiting them. 

  • Terrorism and Security Challenges
    Terrorism, robberies, kidnappings, and other crimes add to Nigeria’s tourist challenges. Nigeria has had its share of security challenges, which keep visitors away. It has gotten so terrible that even other countries are warning their nationals about the hazards of entering the country. People are reconsidering visiting tourist attractions across the country due to increased terrorist incidents within the country.

  • The rising cost of Doing business
    The cost of daily necessities, food, and other supplies has grown dramatically in recent years. While this has impacted all industries, it has disproportionately hurt the tourist and hotel industry. Keeping up with changes in the price of goods has been an enormous difficulty, resulting in a price increase in this industry. In addition, the high cost of doing business also restrains investments in this industry.

  • Multiple Taxations
    In some countries, the tourism industry is substantially taxed. Service tax, luxury tax, transportation tax, aviation fuel tax, and other transportation taxes are all levied across the business, from tour operators to transporters to airlines to hotels. Furthermore, these tax rates tend to fluctuate across the country. As a result, tourism and hospitality companies in Nigeria confront an assortment of taxes imposed by both the federal and state governments, which has slowed their profitability.

  • Environmental risk or encroachment of natural resources such as forests
    Tourism accounts for more than 5% of worldwide greenhouse gas emissions, with 90% from transportation. (World Count) With the trend of adopting sustainable practices in various businesses, the tourism and hospitality industry is expected to do the chevalier. Tourism negatively impacts the environment by depleting local natural resources, pollution, and waste issues. Overconsumption of natural resources is expected in tourism, especially where resources are already scarce.


    • According to the World Economic Forum’s Digital Transformation Initiatives-$305 Billion in value will contribute to the digitisation of aviation, tourism and travel from 2016 to 2025. $100 billion to be taken from traditional players to new competitors, and $700 billion in value created for customers.

      The digital transformation of the industry is changing the traditional means of operation in this industry. As companies adopt new technologies into their business, it has helped increase brand awareness, operational efficiencies, and customer experience.

      Here are some of the digitisation in the industry:

      Virtual reality tourism and Augmented reality
      Brochures that show how the facilities and atmosphere appear are excellent, but what if the tourist/travellers could have a first-hand experience using virtual reality and augmented reality? This will open up a whole new universe and aid in converting additional sales from a customer who already feels at ease. The introduction of VR and AR into the industry has helped tourism companies to give their customers a handful of what they stand to get on their tour.

      Use of Artificial Intelligence (AI)
      Artificial intelligence is becoming increasingly significant in the hotel industry, owing to its capacity to do traditionally human tasks. It might save hoteliers a lot of money, minimise human mistakes, and allow them to provide better service. Traditional means of communication, customer experience, hotel management, and other interactions between clients and the industry are being transformed by AI. Chatbots, self-service apps, and hotel management software are becoming more popular in the sector.

      Online Travel/Digital Travel
      Visitors’ usage of digital technologies during their overall tourism experience is digital travel or digital tourism. Booking travel products online, for example, can be regarded as part of this digital process. Hotels, plane tickets, and car rentals were among the most popular travel products ordered online in the United States in 2021, according to Statista’s Global Consumer Survey. As more players in the travel business go digital, digital travel is gaining traction worldwide.

      IoT devices and wearable devices to track guests and tourists.
      The usage of IoT in hospitality and tourism makes consumers’ lives easier. Customers benefit from these devices because they provide individualised experiences. For example, a hotel room that knows how you enjoy your coffee and how early you want to get up in the morning has a significant competitive edge. This technology will make all the difference in a competitive market, especially with the rise of self-service models like Airbnb.

      Blockchain is associated with currencies like bitcoin, Ethereum, etc., changing the technological system we use every day. For example, with the adoption of blockchain in this industry, customers can now pay a hotel/resort directly without using a bank or anyone else who will charge for converting a currency.

Big Hospitality
Hotel Business
Hospitality 360 Africa blog
Conde Nast Traveller
Airline Magazines 
Travel Africa Magazine
Sage Journal of Hospitality & Tourism

Without Reservations by Bill J. W. Marot
Be My Guest by Conrad Hilton
Be Our Guest by Disney Institute
Setting The Table by Danny Meyer
Pour Your Heart into It by Howard Schultz

The Nigeria Hospitality Event
Hotel Expo Nigeria
Nigeria Hotel Tourism Conference
Food, Hospitality and Drinks by
The Nigeria Food Event

Grand Budapest Hotel
The Hundred foot Journey
The Best Exotic Marigold hotel

Tourism tweetup
Travel business success
This week in travel
Talking Tourism
Marriott’s Behind the design
Lodging leaders
Turn of Events from Social tables
All in the Industry

Explore More Careers and Industries for Job and Innovation Opportunities

Discover top skills, qualifications, and tips for entry and leading organisations that provide career opportunities. You can also connect with alumni in industries of interest to build your professional network (having a LinkedIn account is required).

Media & Publishing

Power & Renewable Energy

Higher Education

Marketing Communications & Advertising

Public Sector

Real Estate & Facility Management

Safety, Security and Defense


Transport & Logistics

Waste Management



CVs and Resumes are interchangeably used to refer to a document that presents you as a candidate suitable to an employer or other kind of organisations (such as agraduate school) to which you have applied for a position. A CV means “curriculum vitae” ­­– a latin phrase which translates to “course of life” while a résumé is a French word which means “to summarise.”

These documents also make the case that a candidate is worth the resources for the prospective employer or organization to invest in the further evaluation, interview and other steps that may be required for the candidate to fill a position.

CV templates available for download and re-use include:

  • CV Template for 2024 Compulsory  Internship – Download

  • CV Template for 2024 Voluntary  Internship – Download

CVs for submission to private sector employers do not need to be too heavy on details. However, should serve as a concise personal marketing document to focus on your competencies, showcase your skills (demonstrated at work), notable achievements, qualifications and work experience RELEVANT and TAILORED to the role to which you are applying. This is why these kinds of CVs are called preferably called resumes in some countries. Your CV can range from one to three pages depending on your work experience and number of active years in the industry.

In applying for roles in academia, scientific research, grants, fellowships and international jobs, your CV should provide a detailed and comprehensive listing of one’s education, work history, certifications, research experience, publications, presentations, and professional affiliations and memberships. These details vary by country, but can include one’s date of birth, nationality, marital status, and number of children. Unless otherwise stated, this type of CVs has no page restrictions.

Some employers and organizations such as graduate schools provide guidelines to formatting your CV for submission. It is in your best interest to abide with these guidelines as several organisations now use application tracking systems (ATS) to sort out CVs for the consideration of a personnel within the organization. It is also the first test of your ability to comprehend information as a suitable candidate for to the role you are applying for.

A dilemma in writing your CV is knowing what to include or remove. The first answer to this should be sought from the employer or organization to whom you are submitting your CV, provided instructions on CV formats are provided. However, when specific instructions are not provided, these are general rules you can stick with:

 Contact details
Include your full name, home address, mobile number and email address. Ensure that your mobile number is reachable and avoid playful email addresses or those that you don’t check.

Personal Information
When age limits are set on a role or you are applying to a job in a country where there are no strict laws on employer discrimination, you may need to add your date of birth, gender and marital status. Otherwise, they are not required. You can add the link to your social media handle, such as LinkedIn, provided you have taken time to deliberately work on your online presence.

Profile/Career Objective/Summary Statements
While not compulsory, it is not uncommon to see CVs which have a short profile or statement placed at the beginning of a CV. If you have decided to add this to your CV, it should be concise and describe your selling attributes in a way that makes you stand out from the rest of the pack. It also provides an opportunity summarily describe your past accomplishments and future ambition in a way that matches the role you are applying to. This means that it should not be generic but tailored to the role you are applying for.

Education and Professional Qualifications 
List your education to date. This should also include your professional qualifications and relevant industry certifications which you may decide to place in a separate section. You can also add relevant bootcamps you have attended or online courses you have taken. They should be arranged chronologically i.e. the most recent first. Do not hesitate to add your grade or class position to every education or training where you have excelled. This provides an opportunity to sell yourself as a high-flying candidate.

Work experience
List your work experience in a chronological order. The work experience to include can be full time or volunteer positions, independent or group projects, as long as you can demonstrate they provided you the opportunity to build and apply skills which may be directly or indirectly transferable to the role you are applying for. Each of these work experiences should Include your job title, organization name, duration of work and the tasks you did while occupying that role ­– this can be summarized or listed as bullet points

Skills and Competencies
While several CVs have sections to list skills and competencies, describing them in your work experiences, education and accomplishments provides a better way to communicate them. This shows employers that you don’t just have potentials, but you are actualising them. Skills may include the ability to speak a foreign language, use a software or knowledge of a trade. Whatever it is, just ensure that it is presented to be relevant to the role for which you are applying.  Be careful not to exaggerate your abilities or make claims that you may struggle to defend.

Achievements and Accomplishments
Your CV provides you an opportunity to showcase yourself as the best candidate for the place you are applying for. Therefore, you may want to include any award, honor, prize, fellowship or grant you have received as achievements. Accomplishments may include opportunities you have had such as your article being published on a reputable platform, presentations and recognitions you have received

Beyond hobbies, interests provide a more encompassing way to show your life outside. They should not be generic such as stating you like reading, travelling and watching football. They should be more active and present you as an interesting person desirable on a team. These can be as detailed as the genre of books, movies and music. Participation in a choir, band or drama group. Volunteerism in an association or group. When interestingly presented, your interests can become talking points at interviews. So, let your interest be want you familiar with. Don’t claim to be an expert at playing golf in you’ve only stepped on a golf course.

Grey Areas
It is becoming increasingly common to see pictures on CVs. It is not mandatory that you picture is attached to your CV unless you are applying for an acting or modelling job – it may not even be necessary in this case. Adding a picture can also make the file size of your CV, making it difficult for applicant tracking systems (ATS) to process. Your online presence provides you a channel to project your pictures. Ensure that you have a picture that fits a workplace on social media channels such as LinkedIn. For pictures of your projects, a portfolio is the best document to present them. A portfolio makes it possible to present them with notes to provide more information to the reader.

Take note of specific instructions that may require you to add references to your CV. If not stated, adding references may not be necessary. For academic CVs, references are always required – a majority of which must be past academic tutors and sometimes a manager in the workplace can be one of the three. CVs for job applications that require references can have only managers who you have worked with in the past. On all occasions, ensure that your references are those that can provide supporting information about you if the prospective employer or institution you are applying to requires them to. References should include their name, roles, company/institution, email and phone numbers.

A great CV takes your skills and experience and tailors them to the job you’re applying for. The following are tips to help you get started in creating a successful CV and securing your first (or next) job.

There is no right or wrong way to write a CV but there are some common sections you should cover. These include: personal and contact information; education and qualifications; work history and/or experience; relevant skills to the job in question; own interests, achievements or hobbies; and some reference. There is no need adding the title of a “Curriculum Vitae” to your document. The title should be your name and the layout should make it obvious that it is a CV. Use regular font such as Arial, Calibri, Helvetica, Times and Verdana. Avoid fancy fonts that may look cool to you but may be difficult to read for a recruiter who has many CVs to go through.

Understand the job description
Take notes and create bullet points, highlighting everything you can satisfy and all the bits you can’t. With the areas where you’re lacking, fill in the blanks by adapting the skills you do have. For example, if the job in question requires someone with sales experience, there’s nothing stopping you from using any retail work you’ve undertaken – even if it was something to help pay the bills through university or working in a family member’s retail outlet. It will demonstrate the skills you do have and show how they’re transferable. Just make sure you are not lying and you can defend every claim you make. Another trick you can use is to utilize the keywords in the job description in presenting your work experience and skills in your CV.

Tailor your CV to the role
When you’ve established what the job entails and how you can match each requirement, create a CV specifically for that role. Remember, there is no such thing as a generic CV. Every CV you send to a potential employee should be tailored to that role. So, don’t be hesitant to always do the work of editing your CV to fit the role for which you are applying.  You don’t have to re-write the whole document, you can always tweak the details so they’re relevant to each role you are applying for. In a CV, for example, if you are applying for a job in sales, you might want to put your sales experience and training at the top of the work experience and education sections of your CV.

Make the most of your skills
Under the skills section of your CV, don’t forget to mention key skills that can help you to stand out from the crowd. These could include: communication skills; computer skills; team working; problem solving or even speaking a foreign language. It is not enough to list your skills as a bullet point. You can write a short note on how you acquired or have demonstrated each skill. Skills can come out of the most unlikely places, so really think about what you’ve done to grow your own skills, even if you take examples from being in a local sports team or joining a voluntary group – it’s all relevant.

Make the most of your interests and volunteerism
Interests provide you an opportunity to present your life outside work that further indicates you are the right fit for a role. Under interests, highlight the things that show off skills you’ve gained and employers look for. Include anything that shows how diverse, interested and skilled you are. Describe any examples of positions of responsibility, working in a team or anything that shows you can use your own initiative. For example, if you ran your university’s newspaper or if you started a weekend league football team that became a success. Don’t include passive interests like watching TV, solitary hobbies that can be perceived as you lacking in people skills. Make yourself sound really interesting.

Make the most of your experience
Use assertive and positive language under the work history and experience sections, such as “developed”, “organised” or “achieved”. Try to relate the skills you have learned to the job role you’re applying for. For example: “The work experience involved working in a team,” or “This position involved planning, organisation and leadership as I was responsible for a team of people”. Really get to grips with the valuable skills and experience you have gained from past work positions, even if it was just working in a restaurant – every little detail helps.

Keep your CV updated
It’s crucial to review your CV on a regular basis and add any new skills or experience that’s missing. For example, if you’ve just done some volunteering or worked on a new project, make sure they’re on there – potential employers are always impressed with candidates who go the extra mile to boost their own skills and experience. You can always add that new online certification you received. Just ensure that each addition is relevant to the role you are applying to.

Presentation is key
A good CV is clear and concise. Also, employers receive dozens of CVs all the time so it’s unlikely they’ll read each one cover to cover. Most will make a judgment about a CV within sections. The layout should always be clean and well-structured and pleasing to the eyes. CVs typically take a chronological, functional or hybrid format. Though the chronological structure is most commonly used, if you are just starting out in the industry or have gaps in employment, you may consider a functional CV to emphasise your competencies and skills. You can also use the hybrid format which combines both chronological and functional format. You can use a template or flexible CV builder to develop your CV so as to stick and follow through on a clear presentation format.

Proofread multiple times and share with others for feedback
The first draft of any document is prone to all kinds of errors. The secret of flawless documents is not in writing a perfect first version but re-writing until it is near-perfect. Ensure that you read your document multiple times to spot errors. Reading out loud each word can help you to spot errors faster. You just never seem to notice some omissions until they are pointed out by others. So, do not hesitate to share your CV with others to proofread for you. Finally, you can always consult a career advisor, mentor or professional to review your CV for recommendations on areas you can make improvements. The more background work you have done on your own, the less you would likely have to do after their review. Your CV for review may be so perfect that it leads to an unexpected opportunity.

As the number of applicants to organisations have increased over the years and information technology have become more adopted in human resource management, Applicant Tracking Systems (ATS) are one of the technologies that have been embraced by organisations to manage their recruitment processes.

ATS are software applications used to process job applications submitted by candidates, they manage online job application forms, attached CVs, cover letters, credentials and other documents submitted by candidates. Some of them have now incorporated artificial intelligence to scan applications and CVs to recommend candidates to move to the next phase of consideration or interview in a recruitment process. This is why they are called robots.

The larger an organization, the more likely the organization uses an ATS due to the number of submissions they receive during their recruitment process. Most ATS scan CVs for relevant keywords on the candidate’s skills, educational background, and work experience.

Before your well-written CV grabs the attention of recruiters in an organization, getting past the ATS system is the first task. Following are tips to ensure that your CV works well with ATS:

Proper Formatting
ATS process texts. Therefore, the more plainly written your CV is, the faster and easier it is to process by ATS. Avoid the use of tables and graphics such as pictures, logos, shadings and symbols. in your CV. Use standard margins made available in document creation tools, use at least a font size of 11 of standard fronts, and take note of the format of submission recommended by the organisation. Most ATS find it easier to process Word documents as PDFs standards vary and can be more difficult to process.

Emphasize your Skills and Achievements
ATS use filters to recommend candidates for consideration in the recruitment process. These filters search for the availability of relevant skills to for a job in the CVs submitted by candidates. Power words such as “won”, “earned”, “improved” and more can be an indicator to the robot about the quality of the candidate. Therefore, it does not matter how long or beautifully styled your CV is, what is far more important is the quality of its content as it relates to the relevant skillsets you possess and their suitability to the job you are applying for.

Use the Right Keywords
Using the right keywords start from understanding the job description of the position you are applying for and tailoring your CV to it. Highlight your skills with words and phrases used to describe the ideal candidates for the role you are applying for in your CV. You can also use these keywords to describe your job functions in the work experience section of your CV. Don’t limit yourself to acronyms, but use spell out the full words ­– A Bachelor of Science (B.Sc) degree is an example. However, do not flood your CVs with keywords and jargons such that become inauthentic to a human reader during the recruitment process. 

Work on your Online Presence
Some ATS providers have offerings to search and assess the online presence of candidates. Therefore, make deliberate attempt to build a professional brand online. You can make dictate the narrative and make your online presence easier to find by putting adding links to your LinkedIn and website to your CV. You can read more about this in the section on building your online presence.

Leverage Networks
Several organisations use a referral system in their recruitment process. Having a recommendation from one of their staff can move your application up in the ATS stack or even bypass it entirely. It is therefore recommended that you reach out to professionals who may work directly or know someone who does in a company. This can help in advocating for you.

Remember the Humans
As with many technologies used in the workplace today, ATS doesn’t make the final decision on a candidate but only assist recruiters to do their jobs more efficiently. Therefore, bypassing an ATS is not a guarantee that you have secured a job, humans may re-evaluate your CV to be sure you haven’t tricked it. Present your CVs in a chronological format that makes your work experience easy to see or a functional format that puts a spotlight on your skills, depending on what your area of strength is for the job application. Also ensure that while the presentation of your CV is simple for ATS to read, it is also attractively well-laid out for human readers.

There are a number of online tools that can be helpful in developing, optimising and enhancing your CV. They range from simple CV builders, online presence development, to those leveraging artificial intelligence to providing   These tools include:

With Grammarly, you can eliminate writing errors and express yourself perfectly on your CVs by giving you real-time feedback as you write. You can also copy and paste your CV content to it. Beyond writing your CV and cover letter, Grammarly is a great tool for improving your writing.

Novorèsumè and Ineedaresume
Novoresume and Ineedaresume provide online templates readily designed for use in creating your CV. Novoresume also has a content analyser to improve your resume content and suggests possible revisions to make it even better. It can help to present your CV in multiple languages which can be downloaded and shared with others.
Visit and

Resumeworded and Vmock
Resumeworded and Vmock are online tools developed with the knowledge of recruiters to score and review your resume and LinkedIn presence using Artificial Intelligence. They also have an scanning feature to test how ATS will process your CV. It gives you a personalized feedback and actionable steps to greatly improve your CV’s impact. It is simply a CV and online presence optimization tool.
Visit and
This tool lets you take a storytelling approach to building your CV. It sums up your skills, background and interests in a browsable sections such as your story, personality, skills and references. You can also add contact information and links to your other channels of online presence. It doesn’t just end there, you can decide to download your CV in PDF format in addition to the online version.

Jobalytics is a chrome addon that helps you to analyse your CV and matches it to job postings on leading online job boards such as LinkedIn, Indeed and It instantly lets you know how you can make your CV stronger for it to get past ATS and increase your chance of getting an interview.

Here is a list questions to assess the readiness of your CV: 

  • Is the layout well-organised, attractive and inviting to read?
  • Does it feature relevant personal data?


  • Is the content targeted at the role you are applying for?


  • Are your skills featured as  relevant to the job/industry?


  • Does the CV demonstrate your transferable skills and competencies?


  • Is your education and relevant training featured to the job?


  • Has your CV been proofread for grammatically correctness?


  • Is it well formatted and well presented?


  • Is it trimmed to one or two pages or maximum of three as an experienced hire?

Cover Letters and Emails


A cover letter is a simple, concise and formal letter separately attached or within your email to accompany your CV when applying for a job. It provides an opportunity to introduce yourself in the context of the role you are applying for by building on essential information from your CV relating to the job opening you are seeking. The cover letter is a tool to help introduce yourself in a personal way and make a good impression during a job application.

Here are the things that will make your cover letter stand out:

  • Do a thorough research

You must research the company you are applying to before you draft a cover letter. Research helps you get a sense of the company’s culture. Also, you will be able to compare your skills with the requirements for the position.

Researching the company will help dictate the tone you want to use, which may differ greatly, from company to company and industry to industry. For example, the tone of your letter for a legal consulting firm will likely differ from a tech startup.

  • Tell a compelling story

Everyone loves a good story, and recruiters and hiring managers are no exception. Telling compelling stories from your career will make your cover letter unique and memorable for whoever reads it. The anecdotes in your story should serve multiple purposes in accomplishing a lot at once. It should highlight your top hard skills, competencies and specific experiences you want to share. Above all, it should highlight how those skills and experiences have been used.

  • Show how you can solve specific problems

Don’t just mention that you have amazing problem-solving skills. Explain the details of a particular problem you were key in solving and how exactly you employed your skills to solve it. Better yet, if you know the company has a specific problem you could help solve, outline how you can help solve it.

  • Be Honest

Lying on your cover letter is not in your best interest. Implying or stating that you have a skill that you don’t will backfire, so, don’t lie about your competence.

  • End with a call to action

End your letter with a reason for them to contact you. But don’t add remarks like, “I’ll call to schedule an interview.” This doesn’t make you a go-getter, it crosses a boundary. Instead, let the call to action be polite and open-ended, suggesting that you are excited to offer more information and that you’re looking forward to talking with them. 

  • Give your cover letter a unique visual format

A unique visual format for your cover letter can help you stand out from other candidates in a positive way. Just be sure that the unique format you use is appropriate for the company you’re applying to and its industry.  

  • Proofread your cover letter

Always proofread your cover letter for errors and have friends and family read through the cover letter.

When a cover letter is used
A popular question in the mind of many applicants is whether they are to write a cover letter or not. The answer to this question can sometimes be tricky, some job listing requests cover letters while some don’t. One thing to keep in mind is that you should add a cover letter when applying if the job opening that requires one. Even if the job description says “cover letter optional”, it is still advisable to write a great cover letter and attach it to your cv or resume.

Here are a few times you should use a cover letter while applying for a job:

  1. The job description requests or requires a cover letter even if it’s optional.
  2. Someone at the company said you could include their referral on your cover letter.
  3. The job demands writing and communication skills – this will give you a chance to show your skills.

Why should you add a cover letter?
Always keep in mind that competition is fierce for the best positions, so, writing and attaching a great cover letter to your application gives you an opportunity to impress the hiring team. If you’re serious about landing a particular job, cover letters are crucial. Your chances of getting a response from that job increase if you put some consideration into writing and submitting a cover letter.

Here is a list of questions to assess the readiness of your cover letter: 

  1. Does your cover letter have a strong opening paragraph, communicating your job target and key strengths within the first few lines of the text?
  2. Does your cover letter conform to a standard business letter format? 
  3. Is your cover letter addressed to a specific individual, if the name is available?
  4. Are your accomplishments highlighted?
  5. Is the content engaging and relevant to the job description?
  6. Is the cover letter succinct, containing just enough information to entice the reader to review your resume?
  7. Does your cover letter sound genuine? Does it reflect your personality and make you seem likeable and approachable?
  8. Did you proofread your cover letter to ensure it is grammatically correct, concise and clear?
  9. Do the writing style and design coordinate with the resume, such as by using the same font and layout style?
  10. Is it contained in one page (graduates) or a maximum of two pages (experienced professionals)?
  11. Did you provide an easy way for employers to contact you, such as a direct phone line and email address?
  12. Does your cover letter end with a call to action, confidently requesting an interview?

Here are other resources to read to help with your cover letter.



A portfolio is an extension of a CV organised as a document to showcase your work samples, projects undertaken, and accomplishments as a demonstration of your skills. It can also contain awards and recognitions, feedback and testimonials on your work, and brief notes on the project background, project owners and collaborators where necessary. Some portfolios have embedded in them CVs of the portfolio owner while others are only a collection of projects undertaken.

A growing practice is to include the weblink and QR code (of the weblink) to your portfolio on your CV or cover letter – especially when the employer, funder or collaborator is highly interested in your project experience. There are specialised portfolios such as Behance for designers, Github for programmers, and SoundCloud for musicians. The best portfolios are a collection of your work made publicly available.

Here is a list of things that makes up a professional portfolio in no particular order:

  • Biographical information.
    This section is a great spot to show off your personality and build a relationship with clients or potential employers. Talk about your professional background, experience, and successes while also including a few details from your personal life. It’s not necessary to include your entire life narrative in your bio, but a few things that give potential clients a glimpse of who you are will be wonderful.

  • Skills and Abilities.
    What distinguishes you from other candidates for employment is your skill set – what you can do. Include any technical or hard skills relevant to your work, but you should also think about emphasizing your soft skills. For instance, if you’re a web developer, it goes without saying that you should mention your expertise in web development or particular programming languages.

  • Work samples.
    Showcasing your best works or projects is an excellent way of proofing your skills and how you can bring value to your clients or employers. You may include samples that demonstrate a variety of your skills whenever possible. The samples could be in the form of projects, articles, reports, brochures, or presentations, depending on the sector of the economy you work in.

  • Education/Certifications/Professional Development.
    Add your educational qualifications and professional certifications you have acquired over the years – this will further prove your credibility and competence. Also, mention any professional training you have received that is relevant to the position you’re applying for or your career paths, such as webinars, workshops, seminars, or other events. Adding professional development show employers that you’re interested in learning and enthusiastic about your career.
  • Curate your portfolio materials

Curate all necessary information and materials you’ll need for your portfolio as written in the essentials of a portfolio section. These include your biography/professional summary, skills and abilities, work samples, educational/professional certifications, professional developments, high-quality pictures, links to your social pages, contact information, etc.

  • Select the tool to use

There are a number of tools you can use to create your portfolio, and the steps or guidelines to creating one vary across those platforms. You can use Microsoft Powerpoint, Apple Keynote and other presentation applications. You can also use Canva, Photoshop, Coreldraw and other design applications. These tools can help you to create a print or PDF version of your portfolio. You can also use several online platforms for creating e-portfolios that are accessible on the internet. Most sites have a ready-made template you can use and edit to your taste to make your portfolio stand out.

  • Make your Portfolio visually appealing

Ensure you select a design template that will appeal to your audience (clients or employers). It entails selecting a good, friendly and interactive design. Ensure the contents are well-arranged – sort all your information into categories and put them in a precise, easy-to-follow sequence.

You can learn more here and here.

Here are some tools or platforms to build your portfolio:

Microsoft PowerPoint, Apple Keynote, Photoshop, CorelDraw and Canva. It is recommended that you create a PDF version of your portfolio and make them available online so that you can also share the link.

For online portfolio creation, you can use: Google Sites, FolioTek, FolioSpaces, Weebly, OPResume, Wix, Behance (Designers) and GitHub (for programmers).

You can download this template for general use.

For specialised portfolios, you can visit the following links:


Here is a list of questions to assess the readiness of your project portfolio:

  1. Is the design and layout, and table of contents properly done?
  2. Is the outline describing the entire collection and its sections properly articulated?
  3. Is the list of skills and capabilities (Resume) included?
  4. Is the introduction to each sample concise, focused and clear? 
  5. Is the creation of each project properly stated (e.g., project description, inspiration, programs/software used, credits etc.)
  6. Does it contain your best work?
  7. Does the portfolio pop, is it aesthetically pleasing?
  8. Does it Include your identifying information and contact details on every page?

Online Presence


An online presence is a collective impression a person or organization makes online, which can be found through an online search. This is often a combination of a person’s presence on social and professional media channels, blogs, websites, forums and features on websites owned by other individuals and organizations.

Social and professional platforms, individual blogs and websites, forum accounts, and other online presences are no longer just for you; as recruiters become more tech-savvy and are looking up potential employees’ online footprint, it is crucial for any student considering an employment career to have a strong, professional-looking online presence. Your online presence can leave a good or bad impression, even before a prospective employer or professional meets you.

Here are a few tips to create a great and healthy online presence

  • Google yourself
    Make sure to Google yourself right now if you haven’t in recent months. Use an incognito tab and a web browser that you don’t typically use to search. Pay close attention to what appears on the first page of the search results as a job seeker because prospective employers and clients will do the same. Your social media accounts will likely appear on the first page of search results if you don’t have a very common name, so make sure you’re completely comfortable with whatever you share on social media.

  • Establish Accounts in Multiple Places
    You should reevaluate your internet presence if it is solely Facebook/Instagram-based. It is not a professional network, and having an account here rather than, say, LinkedIn, suggests that you are more concerned with personal issues than professional ones. To boost your name, consider additional social media platforms such as Behance, LinkedIn, Twitter, and Tumblr.

  • Keep Your Online Presence Consistent with Your Profession.
    Some social media are better suited than others for particular professions. Accounts on Pinterest or Flickr will work perfectly if you’re a designer, photographer, or artist. Not that much if you’re a lawyer. Do a quick research on what platform suit your profession and harness such platform to your advantage.

  • Optimise your profiles.
    It’s crucial that anyone who stumbles across your page can recognize you right away and be able to understand your brand, hence the need to optimise your profiles. The word “optimisation” can imply a lot of work but it is simple and essential to make your profile stand out on social media. A social media page with a half-finished bio and information and poor pictures won’t gain much traction compared to a well-optimised page. Ensure to fill every part of your profile with the necessary information, high-quality pictures/videos, well-written content, etc as this contributes to the traction your profile gets.

  • Enjoy in Moderation–Control your Content
    As exciting and entertaining as it may be to use social media to develop your brand and increase visibility, the secret to maintaining a healthy online presence is to set time limits and pay attention to the information you publish/post, like, and even how you comment on other’s post. Before you jump on a trend, always think of its impact on your brand and what it will communicate to visitors. Recruiters might go beyond your well-optimised LinkedIn page/ porLinkedInor even your blog and check your social media interactions – ensure to always leave a good impression.

Here is a list of questions to assess your online presence:

  1. Can you easily find your profile when you Google your full name?
  2. Do you have any of the following social media accounts – Facebook/Twitter/LinkedIn/Instagram?
  3. Will you be comfortable with the content associated with your account when searched for by a recruiter?
  4. Do you have informational content on your online pages?
  5. Are your contact details and about available on your blog/medium account?
  6. Are your social media accounts name correctly?
  7. Are your content and images consistent across all social media platforms?
  8. Are your profiles well-optimised to be attractive to employers?
  9. Do you have a customised LinkedIn Url?



The job consideration process includes an important phase called an interview. The interview gives the employer the opportunity to ascertain whether an applicant’s qualifications, background, and personality match those of the position, and it also helps the applicants to know more about the role, and the company. 

The interview stage allows the employer or hiring manager to assess whether an applicant would likely fit in with the organisation’s culture. It also allows an applicant to ask questions or clarify doubts or questions raised by the hiring manager that stems from their experience, qualification or CV, Cover Letter, and other application documents.

  • Research the Company
    Spend a couple of hours gathering as much information as you can on the company from as many sources as you can – this will help you know more about the values, and vision of the company. You can also reach out to current and former employees of the company through LinkedIn to learn about the work culture and ask for a few tips that may be of help to you during the interview.

  • Learn everything you can about the job role
    Knowing what the interviewer is looking for in a candidate is necessary before you can impress them with your knowledge and experience. Most companies have a list of what they’re looking for in a candidate, so go back to the description you used before you applied. These are the things you should highlight in your interview.

  • Practice Possible Interview Questions
    Search for general and technical interview questions that align with the role you’re applying for and make a list of those. Begin rehearsing your answers to them once you’ve jotted down all of the questions you’ll likely be asked during the interview. You will feel more at ease throughout the interview if someone else is asking the questions.

  • Learn to Introduce yourself
    Oftentimes, to start conversations in an interview, the hiring manager asks the applicant to tell them about themselves. You must be able to introduce and interestingly present yourself – You can do this by telling a unique story that captures your growth as an individual and why you choose your career path or why you’re passionate about the job you applied for. This will make interviewers relate with you better rather than the formal “I am passionate, courageous, etc.” format.

  • Good Communication and Body Language
    Whether it’s an online or physical interview, one of the most crucial things a hiring manager or team looks at is your communication skills and body language. Always approach the interview session as a two-way conversation and make your responses direct, honest, and concise. Avoid using jargon or giving out the wrong body language while you speak or listen in an interview. It is okay to ask the interviewer to rephrase questions if you are unsure about what is being asked during an interview.

  • Ask Question(s)
    Do you have any questions for me/us? is how most interviews end, and you should have some questions to ask. This is the part where you get to ask questions that are pertinent to the position and business. You can write down your questions ahead of time and tick the ones that have been addressed as you discuss them during the interview – you can raise the rest of your questions at the end of the interview.

Here’s a list of questions to check your interview (virtual and physical) readiness:

  1. Have you researched the company?
  2. Have you googled or searched LinkedIn for the profile of the company’s hiring manager?
  3. Have you studied to understand the job role?
  4. Do you have an idea of the relevant skills needed for the role?
  5. Do you know how to get to the company’s location?
  6. Can you introduce yourself in one minute?
  7. Can you communicate how your skills fit the job role?
  8. Do you have follow-up questions for your interviewer?
  9. Do you know the dress code for the company you’re interviewing with?
  10. Do you have formal wear for a physical interview?
  11. Do you have a good internet connection?
  12. Does your device have a good camera that can show your face well?
  13. Does your device’s mic sound well?

Briefs and Concept Notes


Briefs, similar to an Executive Summary, are one-page documents that provide concise information on an idea or proposed project. This could be a business venture, research work, or initiative. A concept note is a summarized document written by an innovator, researcher, or mobilizer to communicate the key ideas of a project to decision-makers. This can typically span two to five pages.

These documents provide an outline of an idea or project to get support in funding, collaboration and any other form. In addition to conveying the thoughts of its author, it also aids clarity for the author.

Though Briefs and Concept Notes are usually written to an audience of decision makers, the first benefit it offers is that it helps an innovator to clarify and articulate her thoughts on an idea or project before committing resources to it. 

Potential areas of complexity to communicate can be an early indication on the complexity of information. Therefore, helping the innovator to streamline and focus on the simplest means through which the project objectives can be achieved.

The need to provide succinct and concise information helps an innovator to priorotise and select the most important ideas on a project for communication with decision makers and potential partners.

It also helps decision makers to quickly assess if a project is in alignment with their interests before an innovator commits a substantial level of resources into projects with an expectation of support. Some may provide feedback on how the project can be tailored to their interests which are more easily implemented if provided before the project.

  1. Is the concept note appropriately titled?
  2. Does the introduction or ‘background’ of the project clearly state the problem you are trying to solve?
  3. Are the goals and objectives clearly stated?
  4. Are the expected results clearly stated?
  5. Is the uniqueness of the idea highlighted?
  6. Is the budget properly stated?
  7. Is the document concluded with the desired call-to-action?