Arts and Culture
Overview of the Arts and Culture Industry
As the bedrock of the creative industry, the art and culture industry comprises artists, professionals, institutions, and companies that produce, promote and sell artistic expressions in all forms. UNESCO defines it as a “sector of organised activity whose principal purpose is the production or reproduction, promotion, distribution and/or commercialisation of goods, services and activities of a cultural, artistic or heritage-related nature.”
The creative industry encompasses all visual artistic expressions such as painting, sculpture, literature, theatre, dance, drama, music and film. However, profiles for the music and film industry are also available. In addition, there is a renewed emphasis on the importance of the culture and creative sector in fueling economic development as artists, creators, governments, and non-profit organisations are increasingly encouraged and incentivised to leverage the commercial opportunities tagged “Orange Economy” that the industry provides.
The creative and cultural industry includes libraries and museums, performing arts, artistic crafts, cultural heritage, literature, architecture, audio-visual activities, music, festivals, publishing and visual arts. Arts and culture also drive the tourism industry, with people travelling worldwide to experience diverse heritages, distinctive identities, historical sites, recreational parks, and art collections. These places provide scenic views for capturing images and photography for individuals and companies to exhibit and promote their products, fashion modelling and lifestyle. In addition, the creative industry has proven to be a significant business hub for valuable cultural goods and essential services such as fine arts, visual arts and crafts and other symbolic disciplines.
The promotion of Arts and Culture can contribute to the development and standard of living of people in emerging economies by discovering historical sites and crafts, leading to revenue generation and a rise in the local market value. Many influential companies, individuals, professional artists, organisations, and creators work cross-board in developed companies where Arts and Culture have become a big business. They help provide services such as museum exhibitions, auction houses selling artworks, gallery centres, cultural site tours, and theatre performances. Also, they provide goods such as artworks, relics, sculptures, jewellery, crafted works and more.
In 2013, the Confederation of Authors and Composers Societies (CISAC) reported that the cultural and creative industries globally generated 2,250 billion US Dollars in revenue and employed 29.5 million people worldwide. Visual arts, architecture, and books made the top 5 revenues generated and employment created.
According to the EY – CISAC report study, the global size of the visual arts industry was $391 Billion in 2015, creating 6,732,000 million jobs. In addition, the global market size of cultural goods and services in the same year was valued at 509 billion US Dollars. According to an International Finance Corporation (IFC), the global creative economy could reach $985 billion by 2023, accounting for 10% of the global GDP.
In Africa, the Ernst & Young study in 2015 identified Africa’s cultural industries to have an estimated value of 58 billion US Dollars, employing about 2.4 million people with a GDP contribution of 1.1%.
According to UNESCO, in 2010, cultural activities contributed 1.53% of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Central cultural activities generated 40.5% of this contribution and 59.5% by equipment/supporting cultural activities. The Ministry of Tourism, Arts and Culture was allocated a 75,279,110 billion Ghana Cedis budget for the 2018 financial year. It is projected that amounts of GH¢137,685,399.63, GH¢162,614,264.30, GH¢202,685,399.63, and GH¢233,453,939.59 would be required for the Ministry’s activities for 2019, 2020, 2021 and 2022 respectively.
The Arts and Crafts scene is populated with local beads made from clay, wood and glass. Krobo Beads (glass) are famous for being the only beads in the world that ‘sing’. They come in many different colours and designs and are inexpensive, so you’ll be spoilt for choice. Ghanaian jewellery is also minted into unique indigenous patterns known as Adinkra symbols.
The impressive gallery venues where contemporary art can be seen include the flagship Artists Alliance Gallery, The Loom African Art Gallery, The Dei Center and the Nubuke Foundation. In addition, two important private contemporary art collections are those of the industrialist Seth Dei and the consummate stylist Damali Kelly.
Kenya is the economic and creative economy hub of East Africa. It is also a hub of continental significance, offering intense competition (and collaboration potential) to South Africa and Nigeria.
Between 2007 and 2009, Kenya’s creative economy was worth approximately Ksh.85 billion, or 5.3% of GDP, despite the challenges faced by this sector. The last figures by United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) put the creative economy export worth $40.9 million (Sh4.4 billion). However, the import was more significant at $195 million (Sh21 billion) in 2013.
Kenya’s strength in the creative industry includes Filmmaking, Theatre and Performing arts, Music – including DJ-ing and Dance- Street art, township art and community arts, TV/Radio –African wide production companies. The country is slowly emerging as visual art and fashion force.
The creative industry in Kenya could become a pivotal catalyst to economic growth and development with appropriate institutional, policy and regulatory reforms, among other private sector-related reforms.
Despite driving many economic activities in Nigeria, there is a lack of in-depth data on the size of the arts and cultural industry and its contribution to the country’s economy. In 2021, the Nigerian arts, entertainment and recreation sector recorded combined revenue growth of 0.2%, according to the National Bureau of Statistics.
The Ministry of Finance chose the Nigerian arts and culture sector, Budget and National Planning as a significant component to boost the current Economic Recovery and Growth Plan (ERGP) in 2020. Currently, the visual arts industry provides about 0.4% of the 4.2 million jobs the arts, entertainment and recreational sector provides and is forecasted by Jobberman (Nigeria’s online career platform) to reach 0.8%.
The arts and culture industry of South Africa is as diversified as one could anticipate from such a varied country. The industry is described as a melting pot of creativity that never disappoints and is created by the fusion of regional cultures and varied influences.
The Creative and Cultural industry contributed to 3% of South Africa’s GDP in 2020 according to data from Statistics South Africa. Design and creative services are the largest sectors, accounting for R51 billion in 2020 and 32% of the CCI’s GDP contribution. Audio-visual and Interactive Media is the second-largest domain, accounting for R48.4 billion in 2020 and 30% of the CCI’s GDP contribution.
The SACO research estimates that in 2020, South Africa’s exports of cultural goods totalled US$316.46 million, or 0.37% of the country’s total commodity exports. In South Africa, the creative and cultural sector generated 6% of all jobs overall, or little under 1 million jobs, according to a SACO analysis. Compared to 2017, when the creative economy accounted for 5.9% of all jobs, this was a modest increase (approximately 965 000 jobs).
Government Interest and Support
Governments worldwide are intervening through large budgets and investments. Having this support, the promotion of visual arts and culture has seen a remarkable rise in value and impressive coordination of activities in the industry. Also, State agencies and local government council authorities are collaborating with the public, private sectors and major art patrons to upscale the business of the industry and the socio-environmental impact on people.
Repatriation of Artwork
There’s an increment in the return of artworks stolen during colonial times by certain countries. An ongoing restitution campaign for the international community to play a significant role in recovering artefacts to their place of origin. An example is the return of looted Benin Republic bronzes by Art Paris museums; Uk universities return looted objects from Benin kingdom, Nigeria.
Arts from recyclable materials
Artists now collect recyclable materials from the public and other recyclable companies to recreate and repurpose them into art projects. These sourced recyclable materials include pipes, leather, scrap metals, bridge slotted steel and traffic beads. LED technology can pass through these recycled materials to create stunning designs and artworks, including making sculptures, jewellery, etc.
Artists now use platforms that help generate funds and sponsorship directly for artists and an avenue to showcase their artworks. In addition, crowdfunding brings together a personal connection with the public to support artists and know more about their projects. Crowdfunding websites such as Kickstarter, IndieGogo, and GofundMe serve the purpose of finances and as a marketing tool.
Non-Fungible Token (NFT)
It is a blockchain technology securing (against copyright and thwarting piracy) and for selling artworks, photography and images. It is trending because of its beneficial impact on rewarding artists for their creativity and rare photos, secure and encrypting artworks. The shapes of images could be painting, drawing, or photography.
With the climate change wave, visual arts and culture are used to send clear messages about the environmental impact of carbon emissions (man-made) and other natural disasters. Also, in the social aspects, visual arts like theatre are being used to advocate for gender equality, end to racial discrimination, end to violence and economic reforms. It is also used to represent the sustainable development goals of the United Nations.
Street artworks are on the rise, with murals as a leading trend. The techniques include graffiti, mosaic, and fresco from house ceilings, surfaces or walls. For example, in Seoul, a group of Colombian artists (Vertigo Graffiti Studios) came together to draw various murals and street art pieces to celebrate the 60th anniversary of Korea and Colombia’s bilateral ties.
Creation and audience engagement: Digital literature, contemporary dance, and social reading platforms engage audiences to understand the creative role of arts and culture. It provides connections between; arts organisation, production, mediation and reception, critical response process (CRP) for a round-table of policies and frameworks.
Value of Culture: Influence of Arts and Culture on entrepreneurship and wealth creation; Valuing and understanding culture and policy to encompass a range of institutions; framing and defining everyday cultural experiences through technologies and practices; exploring policies for cultural and creative industries in international development.
Cities, Places, Environment: Public policies for culture promote democracy as much as creativity and how creativity and democracy are related in major cities and non-urban communities. How national, regional and personal identity is shaped by cultural narratives of ecological and environmental histories, the effect of arts and culture on architecture and design.
Context and sustainability: the relationship between Arts and Culture and sustainability in transport, energy, tourism and enterprise; artistic and cultural practices on sustainability and environmental resilience; the spatial, temporal and cultural impacts of imagined and subversive spaces, effects of movement and migration on culture.
Cultural practices: Theory, Aesthetics, Popular Culture; language diversity and its theoretical consequences, researching endangered and understudied languages, and studying translation and interpreting as practices of intercultural mediation.
Cultures and civilization: Culture, traditions, Geo-Cultural values and the dynamic World, epochs and milieus. transitions and stabilities
Culture and innovation: Technologies, inventions, indigenous knowledge systems and practices, culture and innovation and innovating cultures, legacies, modernity and modernization, entrepreneurship, labor practices, and productivity
Quality education for the creative arts industry and the importance of cultural diversity contributing to the world’s economic, environmental and social growth should be fundamental. According to a UNESCO report by Jyoti Hosagrahar, the precise role of culture in sustainable development needs to be systematically studied, measured, and operationalised. Therefore, culture and visual arts help shape the educational system for people with disabilities, youths and children.
The industry promotes a multicultural working space and supports countries’ economies to generate revenue and productive employment for men and women and build sustainable cities. In addition, art and culture recognise the need for creativity, decent working conditions, health and well-being.
Culture plays a vital role in sustainable development goals of making cities and human settlements safe, resilient, and sustainable. It involves people-centred cities and a strong community for protecting and caring for the natural heritage and the world’s culture. Street arts and community buildings are part of the dynamic changes visual arts bring to keep cities attractive, multicultural and ethical for onward progress.
Arts and culture promote a peaceful space for understanding and building strong institutions that help accommodate people and provide conflict resolutions. It serves the diverse cultures of communities, inclusive societies, and equality.
The sale and duplication of peoples’ artworks and culture without permission is a copyright infringement worldwide. These fake copies take recognition, reward and appreciation away from the original works of the owner/artist and the location of their make. Innovative solutions include royalty arrangements and changes in incentives for individuals—innovative machines such as AI software help detect duplicated work from the original. In addition, legal policies to protect the rights of creators, advocacy and a framework to appreciate artworks and heritages by all.
Security of Artwork
Over the years, artworks, artefacts and cultural works have been stolen and forcefully taken away from some areas of the world to other continents. Following this, art thieves generated huge money from stealing and smuggling precious artworks and cultural relics, causing a major concern for UNESCO and the world. With the innovations of fingerprint, embedded synthetic DNA, blockchain technology and digital sensors (such as human detector sensors for museums) to store, protect and encrypt art from theft activities.
The unsteady financial support for the industry is causing the revenue generated not to reach its full potential, thereby affecting the number of employment opportunities. Moreover, due to certain attendant risks and economic downturn, banks offer little or no loans for visual arts and culture artists for their works. On the other hand, there is a rise in government and private investors’ innovative funding programmes such as grants, special stipends, bursaries, perks, fundraising events, residencies, and other kinds of financial support for visual artists. Also, there is an increase in the establishment of galleries and a reliable umbrella body/channel for facilitating the exporting of paintings, books and poetry work, sculptures, metal works etc., to generate revenues.
There is a disparity between the modern global audience and visually fluent people against the traditional art-world elites. The choice and control of the “artists to be celebrated” by influential individuals in charge of art publications, museums, auction houses, and gallery centres is creating a consensus that is affecting the vastness of art values. As a result, these restrictions on the industry by art patrons and institutions’ judgements on “who values what” impact art exploration.
There’s the problem of speedy contemporary artworks flooding the art market. It is spinning artists into a frenzy of “one mega hit” as another trick to fill the wants of the art audience. There’s a need for producing quality and exceptional works rather than trade tricks like attaching scrap metal with ropes to a gallery wall.
The world of fast activities is a growing concern for all. The speed of human contacts, business transactions, electronic communications, and the rapid increase in art fairs, biennials, and art markets are important issues. This modern rush affects the opportunities for meaningful exchanges, critical time for profound thoughts, excessive pressure on artists, and cultural arts overproduction without quality care leading to long-term risks.
Restrictions on the crowd gathering
With recent restrictions on large crowd gatherings due to the pandemic, this social protocol has affected the turnout and visitors to museums, auction houses and gallery centres, as these places require physical entry or in-person experiences to see visual and cultural artwork. One of the new advantages is the innovation of digital platforms, where people can see and visit these places online (i.e. metaverse, Ocula, Artsy).
Improper policy structure in the Art and Culture industry leads to monetisation gaps and property ownership issues. Artists without good business models and partnerships with art centres and auction houses have little to earn and take longer to be recognised.
Radiocarbon dating for artwork
Radiocarbon dating gives the duration of when an artist produced a piece of art. Therefore, it helps to curtail the forgery of paintings. Police and investigative research teams use stratigraphic methods to determine the radiocarbon dates of artworks.
Blockchain Technologies such as NFT
It means non-fungible tokens. These digital encrypted tech and collectables are made in the form of unique artworks and photography sold for certain cryptocurrency tokens. For instance, Afrodroids, an art collection that fuses “cultural sculptures with AI” through photography, is found on the NFT platform. Blockchain technology gives artists a digital platform and an e-commerce market for their visual artworks.
Virtual Art Auction
The alternative market for selling and buying visual art-related items has turned to the virtual platform as a financial pacesetter due to the 2019 pandemic. Christie’s virtual auction of the AI creation, ‘portrait of Edmond de Belamy’, sold for 432,500 thousand US Dollars, fuelled this trend. Although, it poses the question of security, authenticity, and copyrights for a virtual art auction. Artists can perform visual arts and cultural exhibitions through online conferences like SIGGRAPH 2020.
Use of Graphical Software:
Graphical software help communicate art concepts better and give visual designs unique features by editing through the digital platform. It involves computer-based designs, software apps, hand sketch drawings and fundamentals for editing and creating designs. Examples of graphic design apps are Canva, Corel draw, Pixellab, Adobe illustrator etc. They are used for designing posters, flyers, wallpaper themes, e-branding of products, illustrations, logos, marketing brochures, social media posts, photoshopping, galleries, text, motion arts (GIF stickers) and animations.
Digital cultural content: digital platforms provide innovations which include ebooks for people to read online or on their tablets, smartphones, or laptops; AI-generated poetry, online media marketing for online websites and streaming platforms services such as digital televisions, digital billboards, advertising content, social media, and arts and culture e-commerce (online retailers). This enables the visual arts and culture industry to reach a worldwide audience and move content faster.
In addition, 3D smart techs such as 3D tech cameras provide digital photography with quality ultra-clear pictures and 360-degree capturing; 3D animators for making animations help model and bring objects to life in motion arts. Software for 3D animations includes Autodesk Maya, AutoDesk 3Ds Max, and Zbrush LightWave 3D.
Video Gaming Designs
The gaming industry generates massive revenue from smartphone and tablet users. Online and video games depend on digital art crafts and designs to provide a virtual gaming experience with unique features such as forming shapes, human characters, movement, and colour.
Artificial Intelligence (AI)
Developers and artificial intelligence programmers have researched and designed various AI-enabled software to transform visual arts. One of AI’s most important aspects is restoring deformed artworks. Also, The use of AI software to secure artworks and relics is a digital advancement to end theft and forgery.
The Use of the Internet of Things (IoT)
IoT in this sector helps to analyse, monitor, connect and control data of art and cultural activities. IoT helps to protect artworks from being stolen. Interior designers also use IoT tech equipment like prototypes to work closely with clients, structural engineers, contractors, interior decorators and architects. These artists provide professional services and models such as interior spacing, flooring and wallpaper style, lighting system, furniture settings, and colour combinations to meet clients’ objectives and purposes. An example of IoT is Human sensor LDN.
3D video virtual reality glasses
3D virtual reality glasses give a closer view of the dexterous features of visual arts and cultural heritage to experience museums, art dimensions, countries, architectural designs, and skyscrapers. It displays a three-dimensional image of structures, their components, and how they are formed—in high resolution. The extended reality also enables a better concept for solutions, better strategies and technical work for designing.
The visual arts and culture sector is a broad sector immersed with talents and skills that do not necessarily need a first degree for entry. It is a sector that focuses on creative art abilities, hand skills and crafts to bring about interpreting arts, designs and heritage values. The employment opportunities in the visual arts and culture industry include:
Handicrafts/sculpture/wood carving/metal works, Drawing/painting/museum conservation/curation, Art valuation/brokerage/sales/auction, Photography/graphic design/animation, Theatre arts/choreography/poetry/folktales/dancing/drama, Art administration/art directing/art teaching/culture tour guide, Content creation/lifestyle blogging/vlogging.
Other industry work areas are consulting, publishing, museum conservation, arts and culture education and management.
The highest paying jobs are in:
Drawing/Drafter/Design manager/Architect/commercial artist/interior decorator/designer
Art Valuation/Art curator/Art agent business manager/Art conservators/tour guides/art historians
Theatre Arts/Art director/Art professor/Actor/Production Assistant/choreographer
Content creation/ Visual director/lifestyle blogger (Youtuber)
Communication & Persuasion: It involves communicating your interests and ideas. These skills enhance the chances of meeting like-minded people, top expects and art collectors in the visual arts and culture industry for collaborations. In addition, striving to put out engaging content and showing high-level persuasion can attract clients.
Initiative and Enterprise: The initiation of an art enterprise requires connections and marketing strategies. For example, pursuing partnerships with potential clients for deals. Not waiting for permission, marketing and selling your creative content is possible through physical studios and social media.
Networking and Teamwork
This industry requires networking skills such as being in professional associations, affiliations, and crafts guild organisations. And attending industry events such as workshops, seminars, and short courses can help enhance your skills and promote your artwork. Teamwork allows for project sharing, joint studio exhibitions, and advanced skills training. Diverse roles will enable you to fit in multiple teams and be a vital player in teamwork and discourse.
Continual Learning and Adaptation
The visual arts and culture complement each other, and it is essential to continuously spread your skills in other sectors by learning new mediums and platforms for work and sales. For instance, being a photographer, you could also play different roles in drawing, painting and motion arts like choreography could boost the ability to adapt and be flexible, ensuring you stay relevant. You have to be able to switch roles to subsidise your income flow by teaching the technical skills of your profession.
Creativity and Critical Thinking –
The ability to be creative and think outside the box is essential. An analytical mind will help you bring a self-reflective and innovative way by exposing you to different mediums and subject values.
Digital skills bring life to the imaginations of the visual art and creative world. Artists in the industry require content creation skills and social media marketing to create visibility and exposure for a wider reach.
Below is a list of degrees connected to the industry, including first degrees, postgraduate degrees, professional training and certifications. First degrees in fields such as fine arts in art & design, graphic design and media arts, fine art in landscape architecture, digital design/animation, digital photography, digital merchandising design, and marketing communications.
Postgraduate Degrees include Conservation Practice, Conservation for Archaeology and Museums, Applied science in CAD drafting technologies, Performance arts, Arts in museum studies, Arts in art administration,
There are numerous training programmes and short courses directly linked with this industry. For example, they may encompass cultural history, Interior design courses, graphic design courses, creative pattern cutting, video game designs, and museum workshops.
Professional certifications are available in Visual Arts, Fine Arts (CFA), Digital Curation, Online Certificate in Full Stack Development, Certificate in Art and Design Fundamentals(AADF), Animation, Visual Effects and Interactive Content (AVEI), Graphic design courses, use of software tools such as Adobe and Corel suite, Wood Technology Certificate, Certificate in Museum Studies.
Here are a few essential tips to excel in this industry:
- Knowing the specific area of visual arts you are passionate about and having the potential ability is the first start to entering this industry. Also, choose the right mentor and expert to learn from to harness more possible experience and networks. Attending functions will position you with a solid background, strengthening your performing abilities towards creating significant visual arts. This will make potential clients take you more seriously with benefits and additional recommendations.
- The right art degree from an established institution, university, college, and recognised industry school would guarantee a solid career. This forms a more than basic foundation knowledge of the visual arts and culture sector.
- Soft skills are a must-have—good communication, problem-solving skills, decorative techniques, attention to detail, hand-eye coordination and marketing skills (promoting your works online and offline), among others.
- Put your work out there: Having a studio base, art gallery, or market store to exhibit and sell your products and services is an avenue to stay self-employed. You will have to put out your works for publicity through strong marketing (sharing your work on social media and websites) and public relations with artists and prefered gallery/museum centres without being shy. It is essential to have management knowledge in finances and budgeting to help sustain your business as an entrepreneur,
- To stay relevant and get a job as a professional in this industry, you must build contacts by staying up-to-date with industry developments. Connect through attending events for artists, field trips, internship opportunities, volunteering, and developing a portfolio of physical work experiences and work samples. It is essential to follow and introduce yourself to artists and industry-based companies on social media to get frequent updates.
- Getting an agent: As time passes, you must get an agent for your work. With these, you can communicate your industry-related interest and secure funding from investors and potential clients. Note that the application process and pitching to get clients, buyers and suppliers of specific specialised markets is highly competitive. However, affording an art agent will be an excellent partnership to make you excel in the visual arts and culture industry and not give up due to competitiveness and challenges.
- Invest in yourself – constantly advancing your training through self Continuing Professional Training (CPT) will up your game and keep you industry-ready. The training cost in this industry is affordable and an excellent opportunity to build you through your early phase of pushing the limits to the top in the industry. Read industry magazines such as “art monthly” to get leads on the best training.
- Irrespective of your professional career, you can work in the creative industry and offer invaluable services. For instance, you can help in accounting and bookkeeping as an accredited accountant. Your qualification can offer this industry the expertise to succeed. You will have to find a sub-sector where you can add value and a different approach.
An essential feature of working in the visual arts and culture industry is the opportunity for the mobility of artworks and artists. Many artists work individually, while others work in a group such as a theatre and performing groups. They are the embodiment of their work and may choose to work in a shared or personal studio or move from one place to another. This provides opportunities for experiences such as exhibitions, tourism, more visibility and recognition, and as global ambassadors for advocacy and social works.
The commission in the visual arts and creative industry is mostly not fixed. It depends on bargaining and negotiating due to the artwork’s worth, the artist’s popularity, and the gallery/museum showcasing the items. As a professional artist, you have the best chance of setting the price tag, asking price, and value of your artwork for auction. These days, the social media platform is helping artists’ visibility and sales of artworks.
The digital shift has improved the way artists carry out their work. With a digital visual art environment, this industry gives a mix of physical skills and digital space for remuneration, value share, memberships and programmes. However, it still faces significant issues such as obscure recognition for artists, copyrights, piracy and funding schemes.
To start working in this industry, you will undoubtedly need to stay up-to-date with industry developments and connect through art exhibition events, field trips, internship opportunities, volunteering, a portfolio of work experiences and work samples. It is important to note that the application process and pitching to get High-Networth clients, buyers and suppliers of specific specialised markets is highly competitive. You can partner with auction houses for the sale of your artworks, jewellery and crafts.
International confederation of Societies of Authors and Composers (CISAC), International Fund for Cultural Diversity (IFCD), International Federation of Art Council, World Crafts Council, Global Cultural Districts Network, International Amateur Theatre Association, World Cultural Council, World Heritage Committee, International Association for the Reunification of the Pantheon Sculptures, International Association of Panoramic Photographers, International Association of Theatre Critics, International Centre for the Study of the Preservation and Restoration of Cultural Property, The International Committee for the Conservation of the Industrial Heritage, International Organizations of Folklore festivals and Folk Arts, International Council of Monuments and Sites, International Dance Council, International Scientific Council on Cultural Landscapes, Royal Academy of Dance, International Sculpture Centre.
Ghana Culture Forum
Kenya Visual Arts Network, Kenya Musicians Union, Kenya Scriptwriters guild, Performers Rights Association of Kenya, National Museum of Kenya, Theatre Arts Practitioners Association, Kuona Arts Collective. Design Kenya Society
National Association of Nigerian Theater Arts Practitioners (NANTAP)
Society for Performing Arts in Nigeria (SPAN)
Female Artists Association of Nigeria (FEAAN)
South African Association of Arts, Imvaba Arts Association, South African Fine Arts Society, South African Workers’ Cultural Unit (SAWCU), Association of Community Arts Centres (ACAC), Congress for South African Writers (COSAW), Federation of South African Cultural Organisations (FOSACO).
El Anatsui, Ibrahim Mahama, Zohra Opoku, Yaw Owusu, Amoako Boafo, Poetra Asantewa, Adjo Kisser, Bernard Akoi-Jackson, Kwame Akoto-Bamfo. Tutu Agyare, Seth Dei
Tony Wainaina, Mutuma Marangu, Daniel Njoroge, Wambui Collymore, Wanuri Kahiu, Thomas Mwiraria, Patricia Okelo, Bien Aime Baraza, Joy Mboya, Jane Wanjeri
Ben Enwonwu, El Anatsui, Chief Nike Davies-Okundaye, Tokina Peterside, Bruce Onabrakpeya, Constance Swaniker
Nandipha Mntambo, Michael MacGarry, Willie Bester, Liza Grobler, Lionel Smit, Lady Skollie, Beezy Bailey.
Ministry of Tourism, Arts and Culture, National Commission on Culture, Ghana National Commission for UNESCO, National Folklore Board, Ghana Museums and Monuments Board, Creative Arts Agency
The Ministry of Sports, Culture and Heritage.
Ministry of Information and Culture, National Gallery of Arts, National Council for Arts and Culture, National Commission for museums and monuments
Department of Arts and Culture, South African Cultural Observatory (SACO), Arts Council of the African Studies Association, National Arts Council of South Africa.
Segments in this industry are museums, art galleries and theatre centres that put up artworks, cultural relics, and artefacts for sight-seeing, sale and conservation with agent companies and agencies that provide, manage and protect art auctions and cultural sites.
Etsy, Society6, Urban Outfitters, 1st Dibs, Target, Rifle Paper Company, Anthropologie, Saatchi Art, Amazon, Juniper Print Shop, Mutuus studio.
Cultural Centres, Galleries and Museums
Smithsonian Institution, Uffizi Gallery, National Gallery of Art (Washington DC), Metropolitan Museum of Art (MET), National Museum of African American History and Culture, The Louvre, Museum of Modern Art (New York), Acropolis Museum, Museum of Qin Terracotta Warriors and Horses (Xi’an), National Museum of Modern and Contemporary Art (Seoul).
Art Auction and Valuation Houses
Christie’s, Sotheby’s, Phillips, Bonhams, Poly Auction, Heritage Auctions, China Guardian, RomBon Auction, Beijing Hanhai
Patreon, Getty Images, Podia, Pinterest, Optum technology solutions, Art.com
Schools of Arts and Culture
Royal College of Arts (UK), University of the Arts (UK), Parsons School of Design, Rhode Island School of Design, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Politecnico Di Milano, School of the Art Institute of Chicago, The Glasgow School of Art, Pratt Institute, Delft University of Technology.
Accents & Art Ltd, Nubuke Foundation, Artists Alliance Gallery, Loom, Joe’s Perspective Art Boutique, Kane Kwei Carpentry Workshop, Wild Gecko Handicrafts, Gallery 1957, Centre For National Culture, Goethe-Institut, National Museum of Ghana, ANO, Nanoff Gallery, Kuenyehia, The Art Gallery, Art Without Borders Gallery, Tiga African Art Consultancy, Leti Arts, The Kwame Nkrumah Mausoleum, The Museum of Science and Technology, W.E.B Du Bois Museum, Manhyia Palace Museum, Artemartis, Dei Centre.
Lukagwa African Art&Jewellers, Sandai ‑ African Footprints, GoDown art centre, Wabunifu, Mazuri Kenya, Qtron industries, Maasaiduka, Rafinki, Sanaa space, Craft Afrika, Heva, Metta, Creatives garage, Nairobi gallery, Banana hill art gallery, The Kuona trust, One off contemporary art gallery, Matbronze wildlife art gallery foundry, Artz gallery, Diani beach art gallery, La pintora art gallery, Tazama Africa limited, African touch gallery, Akamba arts industry & exporters, Coast gallery of arts, Kashmir arts ltd, Kisii soapstone art & craft, Kumbu Kumbu, Makena designs ltd, Gallery unik ltd.
Sachs Gallery, Tobesco Art Materials, Arteasy Nigeria, Crafts Village Nigeria, AB Artworld, Henrimoweta African Art Gallery, ArtShopNG, Handmade Nigeria.
Cultural Centres, Galleries and Museums
Nigerian National Museum, Benin City National Museum, Oron Museum, Kaduna National Museum, Esie Museum, Jos Museum, Korean cultural centre Nigeria, Nike Centre for Art & Culture, Thought-Pyramid Gallery Art Centre, ArtDey and the Bushman Collection, Street art – Artvocacy, Art and Culture Research Centre, Iwalewa Art Gallery, Vivid Art Gallery, Lvi Art Gallery and Cultural Nexus, Kulture Kode Art Hub, Alexis Galleries,
Art Auction and Valuation Houses
ArtHouse Contemporary Limited (Lagos), Terra Kulture and Mydrim Gallery (TKMG Auction House0, Sogal Auction,
Schools of Arts and Culture
Pretoria Art Museum, JAG – Johannesburg Art Gallery, Bensusan Museum of Photography and Library, Slave Lodge, The Owl House, WHATIFTHEWORLD, Goodman Gallery, Fine Art Gallery, Stellenbosch Modern and Contemporary Art Gallery, Fried Contemporary, Stevenson Gallery, The AVA Gallery, KZNSA Gallery, Standard Bank Gallery, African Craft Market of Rosebank, Everald Read Gallery, Cavalli Art Gallery, Norval Foundation, Worldarts, Johann van Heerden’s Art Gallery, Trent Gallery.
Art Base Africa
Art Africa Magazine
Apollo Magazine (The International art magazine)
Artists Network Magazine
Fine Art Connoisseur Magazine
International: Cape Town art fair, Art Basel, Edinburgh festival, Pop art myths, Kochi-Muziris Biennale, Istanbul Biennale, Budapest spring festival, the Vernice Biennial, For Internationale D’art Contemporain De France (FIAC), Athens and Epidaurus Festival, Ageas Salisbury International Art Festival, Vienna Contemporary, Art Brussels.
Adelaide Fringe, White nights festival, Bali arts festival, festival d’avignon, Gion matsuri, Edinburgh fringe, Art Basel, Masskara festival, Day of the dead – Mexico, World of WearableArt, World body painting festival, Burning Man in Black Rock City, AgitAgueda Art festival, Venice art biennale, ARCOMadrid international contemporary art fair,
Art X Lagos fair, Onidiri – the hair art exhibition, Ibom international art and book festival, LIMCAF, Qfest, Lagos book and arts festival (LABAF), National Festival of Arts and Culture (NAFEST), International arts and crafts expo (INAC), O’DA art gallery exhibition, GTBank Art635 Inspire auction, Centre for contemporary art Lagos, Wings of Hope, Art in Medicine, Africa for her, Ake arts and book festival,
Calabar Festival, Eyo masquerade festival, the Egungun festival, Sango festival, Annang festival of arts and culture, Tiger street food festival, and Argungu festival.
City Lights by Lois Reitzes
Teaching Artist Podcast
Nothing concrete podcast
The luminous Arts Podcast
In Our Time: Culture Podcast
Art for the People Podcast – Anchor FM
Gateways to Art – Debra J. DeWitte
The art museum: from Boullee to Bilbao – Andrew McClellan
The Routledge Companion to William Morris – Florence Boos
International arts and crafts – Karen Livingstone and Linda Parry
Cairo since 1900: An architectural guide – Mohamed Elshahed
Painting Today – Tony Godfrey
Master of the Eclipse – Etel Adnan
Leonardo Da Vinci – Kenneth Clark
The art of forgery – Noah Charney
The limewood sculptors renaissance of Germany – Michael Baxandall
Night at the Museum
The Pink Panther
The Croods: a new age
Tales by light
Salt of the earth
Finding Vivian Maier
https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/media/5c76a3cd40f0b603d78528b6/BERF-Creative-Economy-Report_March-2017_Final_no-cover-page.pdf https://www.f6s.com/companies/art/kenya/co https://medium.com/akoma-media/its-time-to-invest-in-kenya-s-creative-startups-491f410a0315 https://theculturetrip.com/africa/kenya/articles/kenya-s-10-must-see-contemporary-art-galleries-from-nairobi-to-mombasa/ https://www.businesslist.co.ke/category/art-galleries
https://www.britishcouncil.org/east-africa-arts/culturegrows/cultural-heroes https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/media/5c76a3cd40f0b603d78528b6/BERF-Creative-Economy-Report_March-2017_Final_no-cover-page.pdf https://www.designkenyasociety.co.ke/