Waste Management

Industry Profile

Overview of the Waste Management Industry

The waste management industry comprises workers, companies and government agencies that collect, transport, and dispose of garbage, and sewage, including other waste products from homes, offices, public spaces and industries. It extends to the treatment of solid waste and the disposal of products and substances safely and efficiently.

Waste management involves all types of waste, including solid, liquid, or gas. Waste management deals with municipal, industrial, and hazardous waste. 

Municipal wastes are residential waste and non-hazardous waste generated in towns and cities. It includes garbage from houses, including bulky waste, equivalent waste from businesses and industry, office buildings, institutions, and small businesses, yard and garden waste, street sweepings, the contents of litter containers, and market cleaning waste.

Industrial waste is waste produced by industrial activities. It includes any material rendered useless during a manufacturing process, such as that of factories, mills, and mining operations. Industrial waste can be everything from soil and gravel to masonry and concrete to scrap metal, oil, chemicals, solvents, and even food scraps from restaurants. Industrial waste can be solid, semi-solid, or liquid. It could be non-hazardous waste or hazardous waste, some of which are toxic.

Hazardous waste is generated in pharmaceuticals, medicals, chemicals, and paint manufacturing industries. Materials that are poisonous, reactive, ignitable, corrosive, infectious, or radioactive are considered hazardous wastes. These include radioactive materials like isotopes of cobalt and iodine used in cancer treatments, chemical waste from industrials, infectious trash like hypodermic needles, discarded bandages from the health sector, etc. Depending on the material, processing, storing, and disposing of hazardous wastes presents a unique approach.

The collection and disposal of waste are the main tasks carried out by the waste management sector. 

Waste collection services include sorting, storage, and transportation of waste. Collection agencies provide services that involve moving solid trash from the place of use and disposal to the point of treatment, recycling or landfill.

Disposable services, however, pertain to anaerobic digestion, recycling, composting, and separating the waste into several landfills. Companies in this segment see how waste gathered is treated to reduce environmental impact.

One of the major contributions of this industry is the recycling of waste and reducing the impact on the environment. Waste recycling involves collecting waste materials and separating and cleaning up those materials. In addition, waste recycling implies that fewer new products and consumables must be produced, saving raw materials and reducing energy consumption.

A production and consumption paradigm known as the “circular economy” emphasises sharing, renting, reusing, repairing, and recycling old goods for as long as possible. The life cycle of items is extended in this way. In actuality, it refers to minimising waste. When a product is no longer useful, its components are, whenever possible, preserved within the economy. These can be productively applied repeatedly, adding more value. The standard, linear economic paradigm, built on a take-make-consume-throw-away cycle, is disregarded. This concept depends on many inexpensive, readily available energy and materials.

Global View
According to the World Bank, cities worldwide generated 2.01 billion tonnes of solid waste in 2016. This amounted to a footprint of 0.74 kilograms per person per day. Due to rapid population growth and urbanisation, annual waste generation will increase by 70% to 3.40 billion tonnes in 2050. 

The global waste management market will reach $530.0 billion by 2025. Increasing from $330.6 billion in 2017 and growing at a CAGR of 6.0% from 2018 to 2025.

Most African countries cannot process the increasing amount of solid waste. As a result, Africa possesses nearly 20 of the 50 biggest dumpsites in the world on the continent, according to Waste Atlas. In 2012, there were 125 million tonnes of municipal solid waste (MSW). It is to double by 2025. 

With more than 1.2 billion residents who are primarily consumers in growing economies, the opportunity in waste management on the continent is massive. As a result, an estimated annual $8 billion industry can emerge on the continent.

According to Plos One Journals, city authorities in Ghana spend about GHc 6.7 million (US$ 3.45 million) annually on collecting and transporting waste for disposal and GHc 550,000.00 ($0.28 million) monthly to pay waste contractors and for landfill maintenance. However, despite spending 30 to 50% of their operational budgets on solid waste management, cities in Ghana only collect between 50 and 80% of the waste generated. An estimated 12,710 tons of solid waste is generated daily in Ghana. However, only 10% are collected and disposed of at designated dumping sites. Poor sanitation due to indiscriminate waste disposal alone is estimated to cost the country $290 million yearly- equivalent to 1.6% of the country’s Gross Domestic Product.

Currently, Plastic pollution is a major development challenge across the world. Research shows that Ghana generates about 1 million tons of plastic waste annually. Out of this, only 2-5% (22,000-55,000) is recycled. The rest end up in landfill (38%), land (28%), sea (23%), or burned (11%).

According to the world bank report, Kenya’s capital city of Nairobi has an estimated 2400 tons of solid waste generated every day, 20% of which is plastic. Poor waste management, coupled with rising urban pressure, has heightened the risks of environmental degradation in the city of 4.4million people. Of the waste generated by the city, only 45% is recycled, reused or transformed into a form used can yield an economic or ecological benefit. It is a far cry from the 80% target the National environmental management authority set.

Nigeria generates more than 65 million metric tonnes of waste annually, according to the Waste Management Society of Nigeria (WAMASON), with only 20-30% of it collected. Most are recklessly disposed of, leading to the blockage of drainages and water bodies. The industry has the potential to become more than a billion-dollar industry per annum in Nigeria; the recycling industry alone is worth over $250 million, according to BusinessDay. 

In Nigeria, the informal electronic waste sector employs up to 100,000 people. According to the UNEP report, it processes 500,000 tonnes of old gadgets annually.

South Africa
The South African waste management industry, according to Market and Research, had total revenues of $0.3 billion in 2020, representing a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 5.3% between 2016 and 2020. The industry’s consumption volume also increased between 2016 and 2020, with a CAGR of 1.6%, to reach a total of 21.7 million tons in 2020.

Infrastructure News reports South Africans to produce 122 million tonnes of garbage annually. Only 10% of this garbage is recycled or salvaged for other uses. At least 90% of it is illegally dumped or landfilled. The Waste Pickers Association of South Africa estimates about 90,000 waste pickers. According to the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), informal pickers helped municipalities avoid paying between R309 million and R748 million in landfill airspace costs in 2014.

Stringent Waste Management Regulations
Governments worldwide are considering imposing strict controls on garbage creation, handling, disposal, and recycling. It is one of the crucial concerns for businesses and households to address, given the rising environmental consciousness among citizens and the growing demands for environmental pollution control due to waste generation and improper waste management.

Focus on proper sorting and treatment of wastes before disposal
The environment has historically suffered dramatically from the traditional practice of throwing household and industrial waste into landfills and waterways without good sorting and treatment. As a result, sorting waste has grown to be of utmost importance in today’s society. It helps distinguish between biodegradable and non-biodegradable waste, as well as to sort and treat various types of hazardous waste to render it non-hazardous before disposal. The impact on the environment and communities will be reduced as a result.

Adoption of digital technology in waste management  
Computerised technologies will continue to be developed to help enforce garbage separation from recyclable materials. This involves deploying waste sorting robots at recycling facilities, GPS-controlled compactors, and chipped recycle bins that track which homes are recycling whenever the haulier tips the bins, as well as other techniques. In addition, waste and recycling solutions will entail data collection using Big data to achieve sustainability and energy goals.

Innovations in Converting Waste into Energy
Soon, innovations like waste-to-energy technologies will become more well-liked and accepted. Expanding the recycling sector should make it easier for nations to manage their garbage. However, much work still needs to be done because many developing countries are unaware of its economic advantages. Waste can be converted into energy (Electricity by using biofuel), which benefits the environment and can lessen reliance on polluting energy sources.

Composting initiatives will take place along with more recycling programmes
One of those techniques that are gaining acceptance on a global scale is composting. Although it is already commonplace in some homes, societies, restaurants, hotels, etc., its rising popularity for waste management may be due to its simplicity and reduced waste in landfills. Furthermore, Composting is the best approach to treat organic waste and turn it into a valuable resource like fertilisers because organic waste contributes billions of tons worldwide.

Pneumatic Waste Pipes
As urban population growth continues, waste management strategies that can handle rising waste volumes are required. Some cities are tackling this problem by installing pneumatic garbage cans that link to a network of underground pipes. Through the pipes, garbage is transported to a waste collecting facility, where it is sorted or carted away. This technology makes conventional waste collection no longer needed, lowering energy costs and improving overall effectiveness.


Recycling: Converting waste to wealth; Developing products from waste; Recycling and Reuse: Alternatives to Waste Management; How Creating Recyclable Products Support Effective Waste Management; Managing Electronic Waste to Ensure Green Computing; Integrating Economic Incentives to Promote Recycling in Waste Management; The Impact of Recycling in Preserving the Environment.

Energy and Power Generation (Renewable Sources): Development of efficient and less hazardous biomass conversion devices and systems to utilise materials such as agricultural residues and animal and human wastes as energy sources for use, particularly in the rural areas.

Ecosystems Management with Associated Goods and Services: Pollution of marine ecosystems due to effluents from domestic and industrial wastes.

Environmental Management: Mapping/planning sewage location and domestic and industrial waste disposal sites.

Housing and the Urban Environment: Environmental sanitation; waste recycling and disposal technologies.

Waste Management: The Need for Effective Waste Management Policies; The Environmental and Health Effects of Waste Management; Why the Reuse and Recycling of Plastics Are Essential to Waste Management; The Impact of Inefficient Waste Management on Ocean; Waste Management and its Effects on Economic Growth

SDG 3 – Good health and wellbeing
The waste management industry contributes to the achievement of SDG 3 by educating people about the dangers of burning and improper disposal of wastes.

SDG 6 – Clean water and sanitation
A better solid waste management system goes a long way in having a clean water system and sanitation. The Waste management industry is contributing to the eradication of pollution in water bodies.

SDG 7 – Affordable and clean energy
Reducing waste to energy through innovations like waste-to-energy technologies has contributed to generating clean energy. The sector is harnessing these technologies to lessen the impact of garbage on the environment by converting waste into biofuel used to generate power.

SDG 9 & 12 – Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure & Responsible Consumption and production
The industry is contributing to achieving these SDGs with growing innovation on recycling and encouraging resource management, not just dealing with waste.

SDG 14 & 15 – Quality of life on water and land
The contribution of this industry to ensuring the quality of life on water and land is enormous. The industry, through its several programs, policies, and management strategies, is ensuring waste is managed correctly to reduce the pollution of water bodies and land.

Low private sector participation and investment in infrastructure despite rapid urbanisation

The lack of private sector engagement and investment in infrastructural facilities that can help this industry improve the quality of services it provides is another issue it faces. Government agencies have played a significant role in this business, with few private companies participating. However, governments and the private sector are using public-private partnership efforts to invest in and build infrastructure to advance this sector.

Residents burn waste or dumping refuse into water bodies
Each year, billions of tonnes of waste are burned in open, uncontrolled fires worldwide. Numerous additional solid and liquid wastes are dumped in water bodies, seriously impacting the environment and human health. The industry is educating people about correct waste disposal methods and promoting proper product recycling to stop the uncontrolled burning and dumping of waste in water bodies.

Lack of technical expertise in waste management and scarcity of data on the industry
The shortage of qualified experts has resulted in negligence and a lack of accountability, preventing the industry from progressing. This industry has performed poorly because there is a lack of information on several specific processes. Companies in this sector are now training and hiring individuals through graduate programs to end the lack of competent labour cycle. Graduate programs offer a chance to educate graduates and give them the tools they need to succeed in the field.

High capital outlay of waste to wealth technologies
Waste to wealth is turning garbage into a valuable product to create riches. However, waste-to-wealth technologies are costly, and their adoption in Africa is progressing slowly. Increased adoption of these technologies will result from encouraging private investment to support this initiative.

Africa is becoming a dumping site for e-waste from developed countries
E-waste is increasingly being dumped in Africa (Electronic waste or e-waste describes discarded electrical or electronic devices). Loads of electronic garbage from microwaves, laptops, and other devices are piling up throughout the African continent. Governments are prohibiting the import of e-waste from other nations to reduce the buying of e-waste. The advent of Buy Now Pay Later, or the Pay-as-you-go scheme, is also shifting the demand for used items as people can now buy quality products and pay for them later.

Low Standard Recyclables and Safety Issues
Geographical characteristics affect recycling standards because quality differs by area. In addition, the waste management industry has faced several safety issues over the years. Combustible materials, chemical disposal, machine-related risks, and moving parts are only a few of the problems that seriously threaten society. Despite efforts to lessen the problem, it remains a top worry for the environment and the workforce. Regular audits of the affected areas and involving stakeholders in those regions will help solve these challenges.

Smart Trucks
There are smart trucks that can collect data about waste collection in real-time to optimise collection rounds. They have sensors that can measure the air quality, produce thermographic maps of the city, and show the levels of energy loss of buildings. 

Use of Mobile Apps
Smart waste collection technology like mobile apps connects waste individuals and homes to waste collectors with options for bidding. In addition, waste management companies are using this technology to improve service delivery and help reduce unproductive trips to customers’ locations.

Product lifecycle management (PLM)
The process of managing a product’s lifecycle, from conception to manufacturing, sales, support, and eventually retirement, is known as product lifecycle management (PLM). PLM software aids businesses in the development and marketing of new products as a technology. The software makes it simple to track and share data, along the whole value chain of a product, from initial design to production, supply chain management and operations, and asset maintenance.

AI Recycling Robots
To increase efficiency and decrease the need for human workers, these robots powered by artificial intelligence (AI) are made to recognise and sort recyclable items properly. This helps divert materials that might otherwise wind up in landfills, saving recycling facilities money and time. The use of recycling robots has also helped fix the lack of workers in this industry.

Waste Level Sensors
High-tech sensors are made available through the Internet of Things (IoT) and cloud computing, enabling waste management organisations to improve hauling routes and time information. Companies are placing waste level sensors in bins or dumpsters of any size to help reduce pointless journeys to and from landfills. These gadgets gather and store information on fill levels, enabling collection agencies to forecast the frequency of bin emptyings and preventing the overflowing of public containers.

AI-enabled smart waste Bins
The smart waste bin automatically uses artificial intelligence-based object recognition to sort recyclables into separate compartments. The waste is compressed after sorting, and the system keeps track of how filled each bin is. This technology eliminates human mistakes from the initial sorting process, speeds up and simplifies material processing for recycling facilities, reduces waste management expenses by as much as 80%, and significantly boosts staff productivity.

Graduate careers in the industry are Science & Technology and Engineering & Technology professionals, with the following roles unique to the industry:
Waste Management Officer
Environmental Health Officer/Consultant
Recycling coordinator/officer/program manager
Routing and Logistics manager,
Sustainability Specialist,
Facilities Management,
Environmental & Safety Manager/Consultant,
Station Management,
Site Supervisors and Plant Operators,

The highest paying jobs in the industry are: Landfill Operations Manager, Waste Management Engineer,  Account Executive, Waste Management Engineer, Tech Support Analyst, Data Analyst, Sanitation Supervisor, Hazardous Material Specialist, Hazardous Waste Technician, Solid Waste Engineer, Recycling Technician.

Communication & Persuasion 
This is an essential skill as you might be part of several campaigns and talks on best waste management practices for a healthy environment. You should be able to communicate clearly to people orally and in writing to convince them to change their habits and contribute to a clean environment.

Planning & Organisation
Planning and organising are crucial to managing waste properly in this industry. Good organisational and planning skills will boost your efficiency/success rate while working with other professionals or while you manage a project. This also involves your ability to oversee and manage processes and people.

Initiative & Enterprise
Taking the initiative when you spot new opportunities is essential for your career growth and the success of your organisation. Taking action when you spot opportunities will contribute to your company’s success and career growth and promotion.

Creativity & Critical Thinking
Creatives will need to assist launch campaigns that will grab people’s attention and educate them as the industry moves through stages of evolution to enhance service quality, develop policies, and educate more people about the need for safe waste disposal. Critical thinking abilities are also required to suggest optimal waste management practices.

Continual Learning & Adaptation
Changes in government legislation, technology advancements, and a new work paradigm impact the waste management business daily. Therefore, one must stay abreast of recent trends. In addition, one must be adaptable enough to apply the knowledge acquired to keep up with the industry’s continuing changes, remain relevant, and make money in this field.

Digital Proficiency; data analysis and content development
Data analysis skills will be in high demand in the coming years as the industry will have to make informed decisions from data. Also, suppose you can write/develop informative and educational content. In that case, your skill will be of use in this sector to help the industry communicate with people. Therefore, you can also up-skill in these areas.


The industry is open to graduates from all fields, and waste management companies are not known to have stringent entry requirements. However, for technical roles in the industry, such as management of industrial waste, degrees in Waste Management, Environmental science, Environmental Engineering, Chemistry, and Industrial Chemistry may be more relevant.

Relevant postgraduate degrees are in fields such as:
MSc in Environmental Management, Waste & Resource Management, Environmental Pollution Control, Environmental Engineering and Sustainability Management, Water Resources Management, Environmental Consultancy, Nuclear & Environmental Physics,  Environmental Health, Nuclear Decommissioning and Waste Management, Water and Wastewater Engineering, Water, Waste and Environmental Engineering with Industrial Practice.

Relevant professional certifications are in:
Health Safety & Environment (HSE) 
Environmental Management
International Waste Management.
Project management is also beneficial.

The waste management industry offers graduates several career opportunities, especially in advocacy, citizen education and consulting. In addition, quite some new companies in the waste management industry, especially recycling, operate as social enterprises as volunteer initiatives which offer the quickest entry into the industry. 

To find graduate employment in this area, you may consider working with public agencies responsible for waste management and private organisations.

Numerous opportunities include recycling, popularly known as waste to wealth, plastic waste recycling, and e-waste. However, it is an industry where having frontline experience in waste management provides an advantage. Qeeva provides an excellent resource for anyone willing to start a waste management business. 

Tips for starting a business in this industry
The waste management business is vast and comprises small and large companies. Hence, to get started, you should pick a field you want to specialise in, from Toxic waste management to Nuclear waste management to Municipal waste management, etc. Every area in the industry requires different means and modes for the waste-recycling process. 

Starting a waste management company in Nigeria requires capital. Therefore, you should do your homework before beginning to determine how much money you will need to launch your firm. To start a business, you must first select how much it will cost and then research the laws in your state. Ensure you also consider the price of getting licenses, permits, registration, etc. 

The next thing to do is register your business. Again, it is advisable to get a lawyer involved to enlighten you on the options you have at the point of registration. 

Next is to research the areas where you want to locate your business, set up your office, and get a dumpsite to operate with. When deciding which locations your business will serve, consider crucial factors like the population, the average income of the residents, the area’s accessibility by motor vehicle, etc. This will help you determine your target audience and those you’re trying to reach and will inform your business structure.

Next is to get licensed to practice. A government-issued license is required to run a waste management business, which is another crucial point to remember. Make sure you know the standards needed to obtain approval in your state, as waste management company regulations vary from one state to the next. The Ministry of Environment and appropriate organisations can help you in most states obtain a waste management license and other required operation permissions.

After getting your license, the next thing to do is market your business. When promoting your services, be clear about your intentions for creating a business, why your enterprise is unique, the features it will offer, the cost, etc. Next, market your company by visiting the area you want to serve. Inform people that you will be providing waste management services to assist them and that you value referrals. Next, contact various landlord associations and offer incentives for recommendations. You can also market your services through digital campaigns on the internet.

Finally, just as there are opportunities in this sector as a business owner, you must face challenges to succeed.

As a graduate, working in the waste management industry most likely places you in a managerial, planning, or professional role. To do this, you will interact with members of the public, local government officials (if you work for a private waste management company), local communities, and production or industrial organisations. The creation of plans for new and ongoing garbage reduction/collection projects, as well as organising their implementation, are additional job duties for graduates. It involves managing frontline employees (including waste collectors, drivers, equipment operators, and plant staff). It also entails collaboration with other environmental specialists and professionals for advocacy and outreach programs to inform/educate the public about waste management for compliance and health.

The industry’s cycle of operations includes everything from waste collection and transfer to waste sorting. It also covers everything from recycling—the creation of brand-new products—to the landfill-based final disposition of garbage that cannot be recycled or repurposed. 

Workers in this industry work typically from morning till evening, and sometimes night shifts might be needed to meet demand. Also, some companies don’t observe public holidays except the major ones as they might have a load of work to do.

Waste-to-Wealth projects are on the rise due to the waste management sector expanding to include recycling as a critical business component.

International Solid Waste Association (ISWA)
Food and Beverage Recycling Alliance,
E-waste Producers Responsibility Organization (EPRON)
Chartered Institute of Wastes Management 

Environmental Service Providers Association

Waste and Environmental Management Association of Kenya

Waste Management Society of Nigeria, Association of Waste Managers of Nigeria, Waste Management Society of Nigeria (WAMASON)

South Africa
Institute of Waste Management of Southern Africa (IWMSA), South African Waste Pickers Association (SAWPA), South African Waste Business Forum, and South African Plastics Recycling Organization.

Lorna Rutto
Harry Wayne Huizenga Sr

Ibrahim Yougbare, Vivian Ahiayibor, Ezekiel Chibeze, Betty Brown Nyadu, Adwoa Adoyon, Trinity Ama Tagbor

Chebet Lesan, Nzambi Matee, Elizabeth Wanjiru Wathuti, Gerald Matolo, Beatrice Githinji

Isaac Durojaiye Agbetusin a.k.a Otunba Gaddafi, Prince Kwame Agbata, Bilikiss Adebiyi-Abiola, Ossai Reuben Mustapha

South Africa
Bertie Lourens, Thato Kgatlhanye & Rea Ngwane, Sinah Mojanko, Lynn Worsley, Andile Msani.

United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)
United Nations Industrial Development Organisation (UNIDO)

Ministry of Sanitation and Water Resource, Ghana Health Service

Ministry of Environment and Forestry, Ministry of Health

National Environmental Standards and Regulations Enforcement Agency (NESREA)
Most countries like Nigeria have a decentralised state authority for managing waste within each state. For example, the Lagos State Waste Management Agency (LAWMA)

South Africa
Department of Environmental Affairs

The nature of the industry requires feet on the ground. Most facility management companies have a regional focus, with some focused on operating in specific local communities. However, there are speciality firms with an international presence. 

These companies include Clean Harbors, Covanta, Waste Management Inc (WMI), Hitachi Zosen Corporation, Remondis, Suez Environnement, Daiseki Co, INCINER8, Tana Oy, Enevo, Rubicon and Veolia Environnement SA. Waste Management International, Republic Services, Advanced Disposal Services, and Biffa Group are leading companies in country markets.

The industry requires an active foot on the ground; most facility management companies have a regional focus, with some focused on operating in specific local communities. Regional leaders include Hinckley Group (e-waste), SGS Renovo, Recyclan, Mr Green Africa, WestAfrica ENRG, Appclyclers, EcoPost of Kenya (paper recycling), Zanrec (Tanzania) and South African Environserv, Averda, Interwaste and WasteMart, Kudoti.

Pyramid Recycling Enterprise, Dispose Green, Zoomlion Ghana Limited, Jekora Ventures, Asadu Royal Waste Management, JSO, Waste Landfills Company Limited, Zesta Environmental Solutions Ltd, Coliba Ghana, Accra Waste Recycling & Recovery Park, Twelve Baskets Recycling Services, Rapid Waste Limited – LaDMA, Sewerage Systems Ghana Limited, ZoomPak Transfer Station,  Green Waste Management Services, Premko Waste Management Services, City Waste Recycling, Meskworld Company Ltd, Universal Waste Concept, Erksarp Ventures, Bioland  Ltd, New Era Waste Management Concept, Keen 2 Clean Services, Golden Falcon Company Limited, Impact Environmental Limited, 3G Plastic Limited Company, GP Waste Recycle Company Limited

Inciner8 Limited, Biokube A/S, Dilo Armaturen und Anlagen GmbH, Plenser Limited, Directways networking Limited, Accelerated Technology Laboratories, Tranbiz Waste Solutions,, Colnet Limited, Bins Services Ltd, Taka Taka Solutions, Mason Services Ltd, Waste Afrika Kenya Ltd, Kamongo Waste Paper Ltd, Creative Consolidated Ltd, Enviroserve Kenya Ltd, Mr Green Kenya, Zoa Taka Ltd, Kenya Pet Recycling Company Limited, Vintz Plastic Limited, Romeo and House Recyclers Limited, Ecopost Sustainable Living, A Recycling Company Kenya, Gjenge Makers Ltd, Mazingira Safi Initiative, Sanergy, Banza Sanitation Project, Dung Beetle, Discover Brands 3D Printing

The Initiates Plc, Alkem Nigeria Ltd, WeCyclers, Waste Point, Capegate holdings, Del Waste Management Company, Universal Care Nigeria Ltd, Fedoz Nigeria Ltd, Street Waste Company Limited, Recycle Points, Ecoprune, Agoa Waste Management Company, Chanja Datti, Environ-Waste, ZL Global Alliance, Engineering and Environmental Management Services and Pearl Recycling. The startup in Nigeria is OkwuEco.

South Africa
Oricol Environmental Services, Enviroserv Waste Management (Pty) Ltd, The Waste Group (Pty) Ltd, SA Waste (PTY) Ltd, Compass Medical Waste Services, DNF Waste & Environmental Services, Clean Dot Waste, Interwaste Wynberg, Waste Mart, Equilibrium Medical Waste Management, Remade Recycling, EnviroServ, Clean Dot Waste South Africa, Compass Medical Waste Services, Kudoti, WastePlan, Don’t Waste Group, Interwaste, WasteApp, Universal Recycling Company (Pty) Ltd, Star Recycling Company, Remade Recycling (TSH), Atlantic Plastic Recycling, Collect-a-Can, Extrupet.

Waste Today Magazine
DW’s Eco Africa
Let’s Recycle
Resource Magazine
Environmental Expert
Recycling Today
Waste Dive

Flushed Away (2006)
Biùtiful cauntri
The Clean Bin Project
A plastic ocean 

African Waste Management Exhibition & Conference
Nigeria Waste to Wealth Expo
Global Waste Management Virtual Conference & Exhibitions 
Waste & Recycling Expo – Canad
International Water Conference
Africa Sustainable E-Waste Conference And Expo
International Conference on High-Level Radioactive Waste Management (ICHLRWM)
International Conference on Waste to Energy Systems, Energy Supply and Waste Management (ICWESESWM)

Nothing Wasted
Trash Talk
DW’s Eco Africa
Recycle Bin

Industry 4.0 and Circular Economy
Solid Waste Analysis and Minimisation; A Systems Approach
Zero Waste: Management Practices for Environmental Sustainability: Management Practices for Environmental Sustainability
Sustainable Solid Waste Management
Emerging and Eco-Friendly Approaches for Waste Management
What a Waste 2.0,reducing%20waste%20to%20a%20minimum.,of%20discarded%20appliances%20every%20year.—