Extractive and Mining

Overview of the Extractive and Mining Industry

The extractive industry consists of businesses and operations that take the earth’s raw materials like metals, minerals, and oil and gas. It consists of two sectors: mining and oil and gas.

The mining industry encompasses companies, institutions, and government agencies involved in extracting metals such as gold, diamond, copper, lead, zinc, phosphate and other precious minerals such as coal, sapphires and rubies. The processes for extracting such minerals include drilling and pumping, quarrying, and mining. 

The oil and gas industry deals with exploring crude oil and natural gas. The main activities in the mining industry involve exploration (discovery of resources), development and mining. Additionally, it includes processing activities which encompass separating minerals from waste material, smelting and refining, and transport and storage. The extractive industry has proven to be a source of economic boom for many low to middle-income countries that do not have a well-developed service sector.

Global View
The total revenue of the biggest companies in the mining industry is approximately $656 billion in 2020, while the total amount of assets owned by these companies is worth 1,163 billion dollars. The operating expenses of these companies worldwide are about $ 482 billion.
The global mining industry’s output is about 6.9% of gross domestic product at USD5.9 trillion. 76% of this, which is USD4.5 trillion, is from energy extraction such as coal mining.

According to, metallic mineral and coal production in Africa contributed about 4.5% to the continent’s GDP in 2018, declining from 7.1% in 2016.
From a report by Signé and Johnson (2021), “minerals and fossil fuels accounted for over a third of exports from at least 60% of African countries. Additionally, 42 out of 54 African countries are classified as resource-dependent. About 18 of these countries’ economies depend primarily on non-fuel minerals.

Ghana’s mining sector pre-dates the colonial era. Historically, Ghana was known as the Gold Coast. Ghana is Africa’s largest gold producer; it overtook South Africa in 2019 with 4.8 million ounces in output. Gold is Ghana’s most commercially exploited mineral, accounting for about 95% of the country’s mineral revenue. Other commercially used minerals in Ghana are manganese, bauxite, and diamonds. Ghana is also endowed with iron ore, limestone, columbite-tantalite, feldspar, quartz, and salt deposits. There are also minor deposits of ilmenite, magnetite, and rutile. In 2018, Ghana discovered commercial quantities of lithium and is working with international partners to mine and develop lithium mining and processing.

The mining sector is vital to the Ghanaian economy, attracting over half of all foreign direct investment (FDI) and generating more than one-third of all export revenues. In addition, the mining industry is the largest tax-paying sector in the country. It significantly contributes to gross domestic product (GDP) and employment. 

Statista reports that 34,363 people were employed by producing member companies of the Ghana Chamber of Mines in 2020. This significantly increased from the previous year, when the total workforce was 11,899. In addition, over 98% of the employees in the sector were Ghanaians, while the rest were expatriates. Overall, receipts from minerals covered 48.4% of the country’s total exports in 2020.

Ghanaian mining production was traditionally state-owned. However, in the 1980s, Ghana moved toward privatisation and state divestiture by attracting foreign investment. Major mining companies in Ghana include Newmont Goldcorp (American) and Chinese, Canadian, South African, and Australian companies.

Mineral rights are granted to private parties giving them the right to mine the minerals in the ground. However, the Government of Ghana is entitled to a 10% equity interest in mineral operations, even if it does not make a financial contribution.

According to the Kenya Economic Survey 2015, between 2010 and 2014, the total quantity of mineral production in Kenya rose from 1.4 million tonnes to 1.7 million. As a result, the total value of the mineral output increased by over KSh5bn ($50m) from KSh15bn in 2010 to KSh20bn in 2014.

Mineral resources in Kenya include gold, iron ore, talc, soda ash, rare earth minerals and gemstones. Gold is mainly restricted to the westernmost part of the country, while areas around Mombasa host limestone, niobium, iron ore, rocks and salt. The south coast of Kenya is also emerging as a resource-rich location, thanks to the discovery of minerals in the coastal county of Kwale. Situated in the area is Mrima Hill, which has one of the world’s top five rare earth deposits. There are also niobium reserves, which could be worth over $35bn.

There wasn’t a mining industry in Kenya until recently. However, mining Minister Dan Kazungu has now written a new strategy that spans 20 years in the hope of seeing 10% of GDP coming from mining by 2030. The strategy also includes building up to 20 new mines. The aim is to have 20 more operators, such as Australian Base Resources, which focuses on Kenya, situated in the country over the next 15 years.

In 2021 according to, the mining sector contributed about 1.3 trillion naira to the national economy. reported that in 2020, the mining and quarrying sector generated 7% of Nigeria’s GDP. Out of this, 6.7% comes from crude oil and gas. Metal ores and coal mining take 0.1% each, while quarrying and minerals take 0.42%.

South Africa
Statistics from the US Geological Survey and the South African Department of Mineral Resources show that South Africa has more than US$2.5 trillion in mineral reserves, with 16 commodities included among the Top 10 globally. The world’s highest known reserves of gold (13%) and platinum-group metals (PGMs; 88%, 80%, and 72%, respectively) are all found in South Africa. It comes in second place for the following minerals: Fluorspar (17%), Zirconium (25%), Vanadium (32%), Vermiculite (40%) and Titanium minerals (10%). Furthermore, 17% of the world’s Antimony deposits are found in South Africa.

In 2019 according to Stats SA, 514,859 people were employed by the mining industry in South Africa. The gold sector employs 20% of all workers by percentage, followed by the coal sector with 21%, the platinum group metals sector with 39%, and other groups with the remaining percentage.

Oil Shale, Tight oil as alternatives to crude oil
The US and many European nations now invest in Oil Shale Mining. This sedimentary rock formation contains kerogen, which can be used to produce gasoline, diesel and natural gas. Mining involves hydraulic fracturing (horizontal drilling of rocks), known as fracking.

Ensuring mining transparency through blockchain technology
Blockchain, a decentralized and encrypted online ledger used for storing records of transactions using peer-to-peer validation, has been implemented by many companies in the mining industry. It can hold records of personnel entering and exiting a mine site, movement of commodities, and financial transactions.

The Climate-Smart Mining initiative
The climate-smart mining approach minimizes social, environmental, and climate footprints by integrating renewable energy into mining operations, preventing deforestation, repurposing mine sites, and recycling minerals. 

Artificial intelligence is replacing labour/resource-intensive mining
Artificial intelligence, big data and satellite imagery, and Autonomous vehicles are quickly replacing labour in mining sites in developed nations. Also, technological innovations such as drones, laser-based extraction, and waterless processing are gaining wide usage in the extractive industry.

New roles/ skills
Technological advancements in the Mining industry require that the workforce develop new skills such as data management, programming skills, and machine maintenance. With the increase of machines, it is estimated that most labour-intensive jobs will be replaced with data-driven jobs.


These include:

Solid Minerals

  • Improving exploration and mining activities through technological inputs, especially for artisanal operators 
  • Tackling the mineral processing deficit challenge through mineral beneficiation and processing activities
  • Environmental challenges in mineral beneficiation and processing. Including health risks from geological factors.
  • Modern design and fabrication of mining equipment and processing machinery for small-scale operators 
  • Improving groundwater prospecting techniques to ensure water security
  • Enhancing oil recovery techniques for marginal field operators
  • Designing and fabrication of spare parts to enhance the effectiveness of the Nigeria content policy

Oil, Gas and Mining Sector 

  • Institutional and Legal setting for operation in the sector 
  • Human resources development policy and practice to support the industry and achieve high local content 
  • External and Internal factors impacting the diverse operations in the sector 
  • Linkage to the national economy
  • Institutional and Legal setting for operation in the sector
  • Manpower development policy and practice to support the sector and achieve high local content
  • External and Internal factors impacting the diverse operations in the sector
  • Linkage to the national economy

Revenue from royalties to develop communities with mineral resources.

In many nations, the extractive industry is the primary driver of GDP, economic growth, and employment opportunities. Opportunities for training. Investment in revenue in other areas of the economy to reduce dependence on the extractive industries. e.g. the United Arab Emirates.

The process of mining raw materials and the subsequent processing of these materials to get finished petrochemical products requires enormous infrastructure. Also, the competitive nature of the industry drives innovation. 


Environmental pollution
Air and water pollution is common in the mining industry as unrefined chemicals are regularly released into the environment, causing several respiratory system diseases and triggering allergies. Similarly, sediments from soil erosion and pollutants from underground mines find their way into water bodies and threaten aquatic life.

Shrinking finance due to ESG (Environmental, Social, and Governance) being observed by financial service providers
Due to the enormous impact of mining on Climate change, governments have set up several task forces. These task forces monitor how companies disclose climate-related risks, especially when seeking finance. Unfortunately, this has drastically reduced the rate of investment in the industry.

Instability in several resources-rich nations
Several richest mineral deposits in the world are located in regions plagued by violence and political instability. This poses challenges like the safety of workers, unstable prices of commodities, and recession. 

High level of risk, conflicts and threats to human life.
In many mineral-rich African countries, there are often company-community conflicts. In addition, the distribution of profits and dividends shows inequality and exclusion of residents who are customary owners of the mineral-rich sites. Furthermore, the poor condition of mining sites and the risk of accidents and explosions pose threats to human life.

Low investment due to Government regulations
Due to ESG, companies in the extractive industry face the challenge of regularly monitoring and reporting environmental, social or governance risks. Moreover, it determines whether they can get investors, obtain permits, or collaborate with Communities and NGOs. 

Internet of Things (IoT)
Technologies such as wireless networks, low-cost sensors, virtual sensors, and big data are used to implement the interconnection and control of Mining equipment from any position. Functions of IoT may include tracking loading status/position of trucks, monitoring water level/rock stability underground, and monitoring workers for emergency situations.

Big data and Real-time data Analysis
Real-time data concerns the speed of delivering data to and fro between systems and users. Extractive Companies use predictive maintenance systems that rely on real-time and big data to track the operation and forecast the breakdown of equipment like belt conveyors, trucks, etc. Measuring dust exposure, carbon monoxide detection to evaluate hazard, simulation and visualization of the mining process are other uses of big data.

3D Printing
3D printing can be used to reproduce spare parts and special components, to prevent downtime from machine breakdown. This technology can also be used for illustration because data from drones, satellite, etc can be fed into the 3D printer to create models of ore deposits.

Repetitive  tasks in the extractive industry such as monitoring trucks are increasingly being automated through the use of technology like GPS. Automation may soon be applied to labour-intensive tasks such as loading ore and waste if limitations such as unstable rock conditions at Mining sites can be overcome.

Cyber Security and Encryption
The interconnection of Mining sites and equipment through IoT has made the extractive Industry vulnerable to cyber attacks which can cause significant financial loss, downtime, and even threats to life. This made it necessary for extractive companies to invest in security technologies like blockchain, and data backup.

The extractive industry provides employment opportunities for skilled and unskilled labour. In addition, the sector is suitable for individuals who desire cross-disciplinary careers, especially in engineering. The technical jobs common to the extractive industry include:

Drilling engineer, Energy engineer, Engineering geologist, Geochemist, Geophysicist, GIS O, Hydrographic Surveyor, Mining engineer, Mudlogger, Petroleum engineer, Wellsite geologist, Mine safety manager, Finance specialist and manager, Process Engineer, Metallurgy planner, Analytical chemist., Energy manager, Environmental engineer,  Manufacturing engineer, Materials engineer, Quality manager, Divisional plant engineer, Process Control Engineer, Lithium Process scientist, Injection Specialist, Data Engineer, Communications Technicians, Machine Learning Engineer, Production Systems Support, Workshop Technician, Mining Technology, Implementation Specialist.

The highest paying jobs in the extractive industry listed by the Global Talent Energy Index are Project Manager, Drilling Supervisor, Construction Manager, Reservoir Engineer, Drilling Engineer, Geophysicist, Mechanical Engineer, HSE Manager, Project Manager and Production Manager, respectively.

  1. Analysis & Problem-Solving. 
    Companies in a highly competitive industry such as the extractive industry need workers who can break a problem into smaller ones. In addition, they need workers who can examine and evaluate information to conclude and provide logical solutions. These skills give the company a competitive edge.  
  2. Continual Learning & Adaptation.
    Rapid innovation and change in technology require that workers learn new skills and adjust approaches, even workflow. Demonstrating that you can go with the flow while maintaining a positive attitude. 
  3. Teamwork.
    Team players, people who connect, and make positive contributions to the group, are useful in technical and intensive work associated with the extractive industry. In addition, developing teamwork skills helps work with other workers and regulators.
  4. Initiative & Enterprise
    Employees who can recognize opportunities to solve organizational problems and take the initiative will boost the innovative capacity of any team and set the pace for continual learning. 


A Bachelor’s degree in pure sciences and engineering is relevant for technical careers in the industry. However, undergraduate or graduate degrees in mining engineering or most engineering fields are in higher demand. Individuals from other disciplines such as law, accounting, economics, etc., can also play critical roles in the industry. Changing to a career in the extractive industry becomes easy with a postgraduate program in mining or petroleum. Still, most graduate programs require that applicants hold a Bachelor’s degree in a pure/applied sciences, environmental or engineering field. 

Oil and Gas Engineering, Civil and Construction Engineering, Extractive Metallurgy, Chemical Engineering, Energy Management, Chemical and Materials Engineering, Safety Engineering, Electrical Engineering, Geological Engineering.

Relevant postgraduate/ Masters degrees in the Extractive Industry include: 

Mining and geological Engineering, Sustainable Mining research,  Mining management,  Extractive industry Policy, Management and Regulations Extractive industry law.

Relevant professional certifications include

Project Management Professional

Health Safety and Environment


There are numerous jobs in the mining extractive industry that require little to no professional training. Still, these are labour-intensive, low paying jobs. The requirements to gain meaningful employment in the extractive industry vary by position. Suppose you are interested in becoming an engineer or a mineral scientist, you must have at least a bachelor’s degree in a field such as chemistry, mechanical, chemical, electrical or civil engineering, geology, or a closely related subject. Health and safety workers need at least a diploma or Bachelor’s degree in healthcare-related disciplines. Gaining middle-level management roles such as project and site managers usually require years of experience and additional postgraduate degrees. Internship opportunities and training can be considered work experience in this industry.

Most Companies in the extractive industry operate non-stop throughout the week by implenting shifts. Depending on the arrangements, workers may work long shift for many days and take more days off, or work in a regular shift arrangement. On the average, workers in the mining industry globally work around 45 hours per week.

Depending on the role and nature of work, employees in the extractive industry can either work in mining sites and quarries extracting or loading vehicles. Engineers, and field managers usually shuttle between offices and mining locations, while administrative roles such as accountants will work basically in offices.

According to collegegradcom, working on extraction sites usually requires stamina and physical agility due to the need to stand for long periods of time, lift heavy materials, climb rough surfaces. The work conditions are far from satisfying, from poorly lit mines to dangerous weather, exposure to dust and gases, and the possibility of explosion or collapse of mines.  Conditions in modern mines are getting better due to automation of some activities.

The Society of Petroleum Engineers
International Petroleum Industry Environmental Conservation Association (IPIECA)
Institute of Materials, Minerals and Mining
American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical, and Petroleum Engineers 
Association of Mining Analysts
Minerals Engineering Society
Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration (SME)

Ghana Mine Workers Union, Ghana Chamber of Mines

The Association Of Women In Energy And Extractives In Kenya

Council of Nigerian Mining Engineers and Geoscientists (COMEG)
Nigerian Society of Mining Engineers (NSME)
National Union of Petroleum and Gas Workers (NUPENG)
Independent Petroleum Marketers Association of Nigeria
National Association of Petroleum Explorationists (NAPE)

South Africa
Mine Ventilation Society of SA (MVSSA), South Africa Colliery Managers’ Association (SACMA), Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy (SAIMM), South African National Institute of Rock Engineers (SANIRE), CoalTech Research Association, Minerals Council South Africa.

Francis Eduku, Shadrach Adjetey Sowah, Margaret Aniawu-Asumakah, Benjamin Nii Ayi Aryee, Eric Asubonteng

Dharmesh Savla, Narendra Raval, Bhavnish Chandaria, Hetul Chandaria

Adekunle Akintola, Dr Innocent Ezuma

South Africa
Nolitha Fakude, Johan Ferreira, Emotan Josephine Aburime-Shine, Danie Pretorius, Natascha Viljoen, Patrice Tlhopane Motsepe, Marius Kloppers.

Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)
International Council on Mining and Metals (ICMM) The Intergovernmental Forum on Mining, Minerals, Metals and Sustainable Development (IGF) ·
World Petroleum Council
Mine Safety and Health Administration
United States Bureau of Mines
United State Department of Labor

Office of Surface Mining, Reclamation and Enforcement
Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative.

Ghana Integrated Bauxite and Aluminium Development Authority, Minerals Commission, Ministry of Lands and Natural Resources, Geological Survey Department, Environmental Protection Agency

Ministry of Petroleum and Mining, National Mining Corporation, Minerals and Metals
Commodity Exchange

Nigeria Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative, Federal, Ministry of Solid Minerals Development
Ministry of Mines and Steels (MMSD), Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC), Department of Petroleum Resources (DPR), National Petroleum Investment Management Services (NAPIMS)

South Africa
Department of Mineral Resources (DMR), Ministry of Mineral Resources and Energy, Mine Health and Safety Council.

Newmount, Sothern Copper, Freeport McMoran, BHP Group, Rio Tinto Group, MMC Norilsk Nickel, Glencore, Anglo American, PJSC Polyus, Arcelormittal, Novolipetsk Steel, Tenaris, Pao Severstal, ExxonMobil, Marathon Petroleum, Chesapeake Energy, Chevron, Saudi Aramco, Gzprom, Equinor (Norway), Western Gas Partners LP, Kinder Morgan, Valero Energy, Royal Dutch Shell, BP, Devon Energy, Occidental, Enbridge, Marathon Petroleum, Eni, ConocoPhillips, Rosneft, Pemex, Suncor Energy, Indian Oil Corporation, Reliance Industries, Kuwait Petroleum Corporation, Phillips 66, PetroChina, Lukoil, Sinopec, China National Petroleum Corporation, Thor Explorations.

Ghana Manganese Company Ltd, Perseus Mining Ltd, Asanko Gold Mine, Abosso GoldFields Tarkwa Mine, Golden Star Mines, Kinross, Paramount Mining, Kosmos Energy, PW Mining, KHL Gold Dust & Bars Mining Company, Newmont Golden Ridge Ltd – Akyem Mine, Newmont Ghana Gold Limited – Ahafo Mine, Adamus Resource, AngloGold Ashanti Limited, Adamus Resources Limited, Chirano Gold Mines Ltd, Ghana Bauxite Company Ltd, Chifeng Gold Group, Kibi GoldFields, Xtra Gold, Ironridge Resources, B2Gold Corp, Pelangio Exploration, Signature Metals, Azumah Resources, Cassius Mining, Gulf Industrials Ltd, Noble Mineral Resources, Castle Peak Mining, Pan African Resources

Acacia Mining Limited, Apex Africa Resources Limited, JSW Steel East Africa Ltd, Base Titanium Ltd, Dockland Mining Co. Ltd, Athi River Mining Ltd, MayFox Mining Company, East African Pure Gold Limited, Rift Valley Resources and Exploitation Ltd, Zhen Hua Company Ltd, Duma Gold Limited, Delta Mining Company, Nazareth Explorations Limited, AQ Kenya Gold Ltd, Pacific Industrial Energy Ltd, Saptial Mining Company Ltd, Karebe Gold Mining Ltd, Afriore International (Barn=bados) Ltd, Red Rock Resources PLC, Ngira Exploration and mining Works Ltd, Mid Migori Mining Company Ltd, Kilimapesa Gold (PTY) Ltd, Shanzhang Company Ltd, Nobis Company ltd, Samrudha Resources Kenya Ltd, Wanjala Mining Company Limited, Dockland Mining Co. Ltd, Bamba Mining Company ltd

Nigeria Mining Corporation (NMC), Agropet Nigeria Limited, Eta-Zuma Group Ltd, Goldenland Resources International, Kinsfield Energy Ltd, Kohath Investment Group, Multiverse Plc, Palladium Mining Ltd, Red Mining, SBOG Nigeria Ltd, Greenfield Metals Limited, Julong Dredging & Mining Machinery Co. Ltd, Southfield Com Nigeria Limited, Stepstones Global Services Nigeria Ltd, Western Goldfields Group Ltd, Midwestern Oil & Gas Company Plc, Eroton Exploration and Production Company, Sterling Oil & Energy Production Co. Ltd, The Shell Petroleum Development Company of Nigeria Ltd, Total E & P Nigeria Limited, Civic Petroleum Limited, Grafen Integrated Oilfield Services Limited, Agip Energy & Natural Resources Nigeria Limited, Niger-Delta Petroleum Resources Limited, OCP, Hoy Quarry and Mining Company Nig Ltd, Ojibabs Nigeria Limited (Magbon), Timsul Mining Company, Roots Mining Co., PIP Nigeria Resources Limited, Blockmine Mining Company, Mcfussion Company Limited, Wasia African Mining Company Limited, AGVision Mining Ltd., African Natural Resources & Mines Limited, Nasamu mining company, Jamis Minerals, Kabba Mines, Goldenland Resources International, unique el-mao, National Iron Ore Mining Co. Ltd. – Itakpe, Banzir Mining Nigeria limited, Elipse International Exploration Solutions ltd, Princeton Mining & Civil Engineering, Geodel Integrated Systems Ltd, Henan Goldenstone Mining And Processing Company Nigeria Limited, Henan Goldenstone Mining And Processing Company Nigeria Limited, A2 Mega Resources Limited, Spring gem resourses LTD, Segilola Resources Operating Limited, GRIFFIN EARTH AND MINING SERVICES, Afromines Nigeria, Obra Mines Industries LTD, Zeberced LIMITED Quarry, Conbrooks Energy & Minerals Ltd., Boab Mining Nigeria limited, AIG (Nigeria) Limited, Mines Geotechniques Limited, Neo Aces Nigeria Limited, Bright Match Nigeria limited, Amsag Nigeria Limited, Sunflower mines Nigeria Limited, A.A.Y. International mining Company Limited, Chalice Mining & Minerals Processing Industry Nigeria, Albarka Miners (MPCS) Limited, Golden Land Resources International limited, Iss-Hass Nigeria Limited, Balmore trading company limited, S. Pawa Quarry, Ratcon Construction Company Limited, Crushed Stones industries Limited, Morlap Mining & Processing Limited, CCECC Nigeria Limited, Dantata Quarries Nigeria Limited, Hampton Global resources Limited, Royal Quarry Limited, Sewell Global Resources Limited, Omision Unique Investment nigeria Limited, Stone Kriss Limited, 

Fuel Intellisense, Homefort Energy, Grid Mote, Kiakia Gas, Airsynq, EcoMine Technologies, abaut, New Motion Labs, Plotlogic, OreFox, SeePilot, RigUp, Edgewater Midstream, Beyond Limits, Neptune Energy, Ambyint, Blueware, Sotaog, Project Canary, Flutura, Novi Labs, HARBO Technologies, FuelGems, Spur Energy Partners, LOLA Energy

South Africa
Anglo American, Rio Tinto, Kumba Iron Ore Ltd, Sibanye-Stillwater, South African Coal Mining Holdings Ltd, African Rainbow Minerals, Becker Mining South Africa (Pty) Ltd, Anvil Mining Investment Company South Africa (Pty) Ltd, Cronimet Chrome Mining SA Pty. Ltd, Hluma Minerals, Savuka Gold Mine, Mponeng Gold Mine, Palabora Mining Company, Asanko Gold, Kimberley Ekapa Mining Joint Venture, Harmony Gold, Palabora Mining Company Ltd, Sedibelo Platinum Mines Ltd, Lets’eng, Mothae, Kao, Liqhobong, Thaba Telle and Qaqa. 

The Extractive Industries and Society: Journal
Routledge Studies of the Extractive Industries and Sustainable Development: Book series

There will be Blood.
The Men Who Built America
Blood Diamond
Lord of War
October Sky

None in Nigeria. What of NIETI events?
Extractive Industry Geology (EIG) Conference
Mines and Money Connect
Investing in African Mining Indaba

Rethinking Resources
The Drill Down
Oilfield Basics
IHS Markit Energy Trends
Shade magazine

Oil on Water by Helon Habila
The Heartless Stone
In The Last Empire: De Beers, Diamonds, and the World
Extractive Industries by Tony Addison and Alan Roe
Collaborative Governance in Extractive Industries in Africa
Oil, Gas and Mining by Michael C. Stanley and Peter D. Cameron

Sigam, C. and Garcia, L. (2012). Extractive Industries: Optimizing Value Retention In Host Countries. UNCTAD, Geneva. Retrieved from,%2C%20Kiakia%20Gas%2C%20and%20Airsynq.,waterless%20processing%20and%20waste%20disposal.—Assessment-Report-.pdf—Assessment-Report-.pdf,20%20in%20the%20gold%20sector.