Oil & Gas

Industry Profile

Overview of the Oil & Gas Industry

The industry consists of professionals and companies in exploration, production, transportation, processing, marketing, and sales of petrol, gasoline and products such as kerosene, lubricants, jelly etc., developed from extracts of mineral deposits of hydrocarbons. The Oil & Gas industry has, over the last century, emerged as one of the global primary energy sources and a vital driver of the global economy. However, there are many uncertainties about what the next century holds as the world embraces clean energy. 


The industry’s operations are in three segments, which are the:

  • upstream: the business of oil and gas exploration and production
  • midstream: transportation and storage; and
  • downstream, which includes refining, marketing and retailing.

Exploration and production (E&P) companies search for crude oil and natural gas mineral deposits. They find reservoirs to drill oil and gas wells by working with drilling service providers. Well-servicing companies undertake the construction and maintenance of rigs and well sites. 

The midstream companies (maritime logistics service providers) with vessels transport the unprocessed oil and gas to refineries for downstream companies to refine and market. Some companies specialise in one segment of the oil and gas industry; others operate across the entire value chain from oil production to retailing.

 Though petrol/gasoline serves as fuels for vehicles and natural gas as fuel for power plants, they are the most prominent products of the industry. In addition, other petroleum-based products such as petroleum jelly, plastics and insecticides are also used in sectors such as healthcare, beauty and manufacturing.

Global View
According to an IBISWorld 2022 industry research report, the oil and gas industry is one of the largest in revenue generation, with an estimated $5 trillion in revenue annually in 2020. The International Labour Organization (ILO) estimates that nearly 6 million people are employed directly by the petroleum industry, and it supports around 60 million jobs. The sector contributed 3.8% of the global GDP (

 Globally about 88.5 million barrels of oil are consumed daily, accumulating into 30 billion barrels of crude oil yearly as of 2020 ( Crude oil is primarily consumed by developed nations which are making efforts to boost the patronage of renewable energy sources. It is one of the industries with the most powerful influence on global economics and politics. It is a popular saying: “when the oil industry sneezes, the world catches a cold.”

According to Statista, in 2021, the oil and gas sector was projected to add 10.59 billion Ghanaian cedis (GHS), around 1.83 billion U.S. dollars, to Ghana’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP). The value was measured at 13.45 billion GHS (roughly 2.33 billion U.S. dollars) in 2019. Furthermore, the industry was expected to account for 15.94 billion GHS (around 2.76 billion U.S. dollars) of the country’s GDP by 2024, the highest contribution within the forecast period. 

According to Ghana Extractive Industry Transparency Initiative (GHEITI) Reports for the Mining and Oil and Gas Sectors, Ghana’s upstream oil and gas sector contributed 3.83 per cent to the Gross Domestic Product in 2020. In addition, the petroleum sector’s total receipt of $666.39 million in 2020 contributed seven per cent of total government (domestic) revenue for that year. A total of 3,711 employees were engaged in the upstream petroleum sector, 3,211 being Ghanaians and 500 expatriates, as part of efforts by the government to reduce the unemployment rate in the sector.

The petroleum sector has grown significantly since the discovery of oil in commercial quantities in the Jubilee fields in 2007. Average crude oil production capacity has declined slightly over time, with an average of 176,000 barrels per day in September 2021.

The upstream segment includes procuring and refining crude oil by the nation’s only petroleum refinery, Tema Oil Refinery (TOR). Downstream activities involve the marketing and distribution of petroleum products by Oil Marketing Companies (OMCs) and the pre-mixing of petroleum products for other industrial uses. Most OMCs operate in Ghana multinationals. However, several small and medium-sized local OMCs have been established over the last decade.

The Ghana National Petroleum Council (GNPC) is mandated to explore oil within the nation’s territory. As a result, Ghana’s oil and gas prospects are significant. Recent discoveries indicate that oil and gas resources stretch from Cape Three Points in the west to Keta in the east. In addition, the Volta Basin is also believed to hold oil and gas reserves onshore. 

The upstream oil sector is not a significant employer. However, the industry directly provides an estimated 8,000 jobs for Ghana’s population of 30 million people. The government targets 90% local participation in the oil and gas value chain.

Kenya consumes 114,000 barrels per day (B/d) of oil as of 2016. Kenya ranks 75th in the world for oil consumption, accounting for about 0.1% of the world’s total consumption of 97,103,871 barrels per day.

In Kenya, there are over 60 registered Oil companies. The biggest market shareholder is Vivo Energy. Its market share is 28.0%, followed by Total Kenya at 23.1%. Other well-known oil marketing companies include Rubis, National Oil Corporation, Engen and Ola Energy.

The Oil and Gas industry is regulated by the Energy Regulation Commission and the Ministry of mining. Current players in the sector include the National oil corporation of Kenya, Shell, Tullow Oil, KenolKobil MOGAS Hass, Hashi Energy, Gulf energy, Olympic, Dalbit Petroleum, and Petrocam. 

In August 2019, Kenya first exported its first crude oil from the port of Mombasa. Total production and exportation should begin in 2024. 

Kenya Crude Oil Pipeline, also known as the Lokichar-Lamu Oil Pipeline, is a proposed oil pipeline in Kenya and is expected to have a length of 820 kilometres. In 2019, the route surveying began, and the channel should be completed by 2023. As a result, the midstream sector should grow significantly as oil consumption increases in the region and investment in the industry increases.

Nigeria, the largest economy in Africa, is also the largest producer of oil and gas, with petroleum exports value between 2017 and 2021 exceeding $38 billion annually (naira Oil and gas reserves in Nigeria are estimated at 37.06 billion barrels and 187 million cubic feet, respectively. Earnings from the industry make up almost 90% of the foreign exchange in 2018 and a GDP contribution of between 9% to 10% (

International oil companies have increased their staffing with local hands. The growth of jobs results from implementing the Nigerian Oil and Gas Content Development Act (NOGIC Act). In addition, the Act has led to the rise of several indigenous oil servicing companies.

There are no restrictions on the percentage foreign shareholding investors can hold in a Nigerian company. However, the Nigerian government encourages local content development in some key and strategic sectors of the economy, including the oil and gas industry. For example, the country is implementing the NOGIC Act, which promotes local content development in the Nigerian oil and gas industry. 

South Africa
As of 2016, South Africa consumed 640,000 barrels of oil per day, placing it 29th in the world in terms of oil consumption. This amounts to 0.7% of the 97,103,871 barrels per day that are consumed globally overall. Based on its 2016 population of 56,207,646 people, South Africa uses 0.48 gallons of oil per person per day, or 175 gallons per person annually (4 barrels).

South Africa produces 136,517 barrels of oil per day, ranking 42 globally as of 2016, and imports 64% of its oil needs (407,513 barrels per day in 2016). The fuel industry in South Africa, which includes bitumen, jet fuel, illuminating paraffin, fuel oil, gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel, contributes around 8.5% of the country’s GDP and provides about 18% of its primary energy.

According to Worldometer, South Africa was the 56th-largest consumer of natural gas in the world, consuming 179,153 million cubic feet (MMcf) annually, or approximately 0.1% of the 132,290,211 MMcf consumed globally in 2015. Also, 78% – 134,197 million cubic feet (MMcf) of its natural gas consumption was imported in 2015.

Continued exploration for oil and gas has continued in Africa, despite the fluctuations in oil prices and calls to embrace cleaner energy sources.
Investment in fossil fuel exploration is declining globally due to climate change. Many African countries, however, are bent on exploring their untapped oil resources despite pressure in the form of a financial boycott by major financial institutions globally. There is an intense debate on whether Africa should reduce oil exploration, which revolves around the fact that oil is a significant contributor to revenue. In addition, Africa accounted for only about 4% of global greenhouse gases emission despite constituting 17% of the worldwide population.

Regulations for more embrace of local content and training of the local workforce
With increased clamouring for local refineries, there is a need to hire and train local workers to cut the cost of importing expatriate talents from abroad. Similarly, governments in developing nations favour regulations that clamp down on importing petroleum products to encourage investments to build capacity for local production.

Increased investment in local refining capacity and the emergence of modular refineries as smaller-scale operations
In many developing countries, a large percentage of oil consumption is imported. For example, about 80% of refined petroleum is imported despite abundant crude oil production. This has promoted a lot of interest in local refineries. In addition, the high cost of constructing and maintaining refineries, the cost of transportation of crude oil to refineries, and incessant vandalism of crude oil pipelines have made modular refineries a plausible option. These small plants can operate independently or be integrated to form a large refinery. They are usually movable and can be located at the source of crude oil extraction.

Increased demand for natural gas as a cleaner source of energy
Due to the reduction in production costs of renewable energy and the climate problems associated with fossil fuels, there is a significant increase in demand for renewable energy. However, the renewable energy supply is far lower than the demand globally. Therefore, natural gas, the cleanest-burning hydrocarbon, is needed to supplement the supply of clean, renewable energy. Furthermore, while renewable energy depends on weather, sun and wind, natural gas is abundant, hence a great backup source.

Digital Transformation
Some of the industry’s digital transformations include using digital twins for modelling and managing oil fields to support oil production. In addition, the Internet of Things for interconnecting and monitoring equipment, artificial intelligence and big data analytics for automated complex decision making, drilling optimisation, and 3D modelling and visualisation for simulation and realistic representation of oil reservoirs and equipment. 

Predictive maintenance
Using sensors and machine algorithms to access the equipment’s present conditions makes engineers take some maintenance measures. Predictive maintenance prolongs machines’ lives, ensures workers’ safety and reduces repair costs.

Manufacturing Execution Systems 
This increases the industry’s productivity through thorough supervision and control of the manufacturing process using integrated systems and data acquisition for monitoring. This makes production faster and more reliable. 

Lowering cost
Lowering costs is achieved by improving the industry’s efficiency and productivity in value chains and carbon emissions.

These include:

  • Oil recovery enhancement techniques for marginal field operators 
  • Design and fabrication of spare parts to enhance the effectiveness of the Nigeria content policy 
  • Design and manufacturing of modular refineries for use in teaching and research in our higher education institutions 
  • Development of oil pollution remediation technologies
  • Institutional and Legal set-up for operations in the sector 
  • Manpower development policy and practice to support the sector and achieve high local content 
  • External and Internal factors impacting the diverse operations in the sector 
  • Linkage to the national econom
  • Challenges to producing more energy at a lower cost and fewer emissions. 
  • Meeting the demand for cleaner energy from the oil and gas industry.
  • Underinvestment in the upstream sector of the oil and gas industry
  • Indiscipline in oil and gas expenditure at the expense of shareholders 
  • Searching for new revenue streams as a replacement for falling prices and demands.
  • Development of oil pollution remediation technologies
  • Designing and manufacturing modular refineries for use in teaching and research in our higher education institutions
  • Institutional and Legal setting for operation in the sector
  • Manpower development policy and practice to support the sector and achieve high local content
  • External and Internal factors impacting the diverse operations in the sector
  • Linkage to the national economy
  • Enhancing oil recovery techniques for marginal field operators 

Some of the SDGs to which the oil and gas industry can make crucial contributions are:

  • GOAL 7. To ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all by growing the share of natural gas in the energy mix.
  • Goal 13. To take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts by mitigating emissions within oil and gas operations.
  • Goal 14. Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources. Allowing for sustainable development by incorporating environmental assessments into management plans minimising and addressing the rate of ocean acidification, ­ accident prevention, preparedness and response.

Gas flaring in oil drilling sites contributes to global warming
Natural gas is associated with extracting crude oil, which is very difficult, costly and sometimes dangerous to capture and transport. The excess is often burnt off in a process known as gas flaring. This has contributed to global warming and pollution by releasing carbon dioxide, methane, and carbon black into the atmosphere.  

The challenges posed by gas flaring have made oil and gas companies seek innovative alternatives such as re-injecting gas back into the ground and liquefying gas for storage.

Global warming from oil and gas exploration and production, gas flaring and combustion engines
The exploration and combustion of fossil fuels is the highest cause of global warming through greenhouse gas emissions. Companies in the oil and gas industry are striving to reduce global warming through innovative strategies such as decarbonisation and carbon capturing.

Conflict in resource-rich areas heightens security tensions.
With the increase in demand for oil, oil wealth has often been a cause of economic and political conflicts, ethnic and community fights and insurgency. There is also the challenge of communities struggling to ensure oil companies recognise their constitutional ownership of oil-rich lands. As a result, several oil-rich developing nations are clamouring to adopt Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) techniques already in use in developed countries like the United States.

The lack of local skilled workforce and service providers has led to the demand for more local content
As oil and gas demand increases, many companies’ operations become more international as they move into new geographical locations. Still, these companies often have to rely on an expatriate workforce, i.e. importing workers from the parent country of the Company. Hiring local workers will be less costly and contribute to the employment level of the local community. In addition, companies may need to invest in training technologies like virtual reality and 3D modelling to enhance the learning experience of local employees.

Uncertainty in the regulatory environment makes long-term planning difficult
Exploration of oil and gas involves using resources like water and the depletion of land and forests, subjecting to increasing environmental regulations. With discussion on Climate action and ESG, new laws are rolling in faster than oil and gas companies can adapt to previously made regulations. As a result, companies are constantly creating new strategies for extracting, processing and distributing petroleum with little space to implement before environmental standards change. Companies that cannot keep up with the ever-changing standards risk losing their operating licenses.

The high financing cost of operations amid fluctuating oil prices and the vitality of foreign exchange
Demand for petroleum products keeps increasing, 

Environmental pollution, such as oil spillage in oil and gas production areas
According to a World economic forum report, oil spillage through the extraction of oil and gas is poisonous to life on land and water. Birds, insects and other animals can be poisoned or suffocated. At the same time, oil spillage can also reduce the buoyancy of ocean life. The toxic chemicals released into the ocean can stay for years, stored in the sediments on the ocean floor. Companies use oil booms and spill berms to prevent spillage. Nanotechnology (SPIONs) is a new technology explored to clean up oil spills.

Digitalisation in the industry 

  • Digital twins of oil for subsurface modelling and the design and simulation of rig operations before implementation.
  • 4D seismic imaging technology and drones to measure and predict fluid changes in reservoirs and surveillance of oil fields.
  • Internet-of-Things for remote monitoring of offshore drilling platforms and big data analytics for the predictive maintenance of machinery.
  • Autonomous operations and robotics improve oil and gas assets’ efficiency and safety levels.
  • Blockchain for managing oil contracts lifecycle from procurement to payment.
  • Modelling of pipeline designs and simulation of oil flows.
  • 3D modelling and high-quality visualisations help reduce risks and optimise production through the safety of good reservoir models.
  • Blockchain technology is an online ledger usually used in cryptocurrency. Many oil companies now use it to secure transactions, make smart contracts and ensure the transparency of activities.


Science & Technology and Design and Engineering professionals are on the industry’s frontline. The following roles are unique to the industry:

Drilling engineer, Energy engineer, Engineering Geologist, Geochemist, Geoscientist, Hydrographic surveyor, Mining engineer, Mudlogger, Petroleum engineer, Wellsite geologist, Safety Managers, Mining engineer, Pipeline Design Engineer, Petrochemical engineer, Pipeline Design Engineer, Reservoir engineers, Petroleum geologists, Subsea Engineers, Subsurface and Completions Engineers, Pipeline and Piping Engineers, Offshore Maintenance Technician.

 The Oil and Gas industry also has career opportunities for graduates in Marketing & Sales, Administration & Management, Design, Finance, Talent Management, Information Technology, Media & Communications, Advocacy & Development, and Legal services. 

The oil and gas industry is one of the highest paying industries in the world and number one in several oil-dependent Nations such as Nigeria, Libya and Angola. Top paying jobs in the sector are project management, drilling supervision, construction management, reservoir engineering, drilling engineering, production engineering, geophysics, and safety management.

Planning & Organisation: project management is one of the most advantageous skill sets and experience in the industry.
An oil site planner must organise drilling and other activities to ensure maximum return on investment with minimised expenses, ensure the transparency of all activities, and comply with regulations.

Teamwork: for working with other technical and non-technical personnel.
Due to the complex work environment in oil and gas fields, professionals ranging from geoscientists, engineers, health and safety officers, and unskilled labourers must cooperate and communicate to ensure safety and effective risk management. In addition, operations on and off oilfields are usually integrated and dependent on one another. Therefore, failure to communicate or complete a process can negatively impact other processes.

Analysis & Problem-Solving: for analysing and providing technical issues.
Companies in the oil and gas sector have to overcome many challenges posed by changing weather and uncertainty in regulations. Therefore, professionals like geoscientists, environmentalists and engineers must possess analytical skills to weigh evidence, predict future outcomes and advise management on the best course of action.

Professionalism & Industry Awareness: The oil and gas industry is conservative and highly regulated yet undergoing rapid changes. 
Professionals need to stay abreast of industry trends, especially in digitisation. Oil and gas professionals work in environments where the ability to handle pressure is essential. This can be achieved through good time management practices, multitasking, self-appraisal, and feedback.


Digital Skills: Data Science for analysing big data from machinery and facilities, Machine Learning for predictive modelling, Modelling and Simulation in the design of pipelines.


A degree in a STEM or engineering course such as chemical engineering, mechanical, electrical or petroleum engineering provides a direct pathway to technical roles in the industry. A first degree in environmental studies is also a good fit for roles in sustainability; it is now gaining traction across the energy sector.

A high level of caution is required in both onshore and offshore facilities. Project Management, with a focus on engineering projects, is another training and certification that is highly rewarding. So do training and certifications in health, safety and environment. 

There are also postgraduate programmes closely related to the Oil and Gas industry. Some of these are in Energy Management, Petroleum Engineering, offshore management and management, and policy and engineering in the oil and gas industry. A postgraduate degree provides an advantage for working with international energy agencies and advancing to senior roles in the oil and gas companies.

Graduates from other fields of study can work in non-technical positions in Marketing & Sales, Administration & Management, Design, Finance, Talent Management, Information Technology, Media & Communications, Advocacy & Development, and Legal services. 

Since it is one of the most financially rewarding industries, it is a very competitive industry to break in. Yet, there is a significant shortage of skills in the industry. There are quite a several skill sets required to enter this field.

Multinationals and large indigenous companies provide opportunities for graduates in various roles. For example, companies such as Chevron and Shell have graduate programmes which make it possible to choose from technical, commercial and corporate positions. Typically required is at least a 2:1 in a relevant subject at a recognised university to gain entry to a scheme. Due to the number of applications received for these programmes, most companies conduct an online psychometric test for a first selection. For successful candidates, this is typically followed by aptitude tests and several rounds of interviews to select successful candidates. In addition, having a second degree in an oil and gas-related course provides an advantage in some roles and working with international agencies in the industry.

Despite a high level of contracting by large oil companies to smaller service providers – career opportunities offered by these smaller companies are often ignored. They have a lesser barrier to entry and provide a platform to gain experience. Several of these smaller servicing companies offer internship opportunities for graduates. Graduates are provided exposure to the realities of the industry for graduates to hone their skills and be prepared as experienced hires in top companies.

Starting a business in the oil and gas industry is capital intensive, requires technical expertise and requires an extensive network of contacts. In addition, the world’s shifting attention to cleaner energy sources has made the sector less attractive to startup entrepreneurs.

The image of the oil and gas industry that often comes to many is that of engineers wearing helmets working with heavy machinery on an oil rig or refinery. However, there are numerous career opportunities in the industry bound to laboratories and offices. Two key important work areas in oil production are onshore and offshore. Offshore encompasses all activities of the drilling site located on dry land and is estimated to be around 70% of the global total oil production. Onshore activities take place in ocean waters.

 Working on an oil rig requires working for extended periods, 12-hour shifts for maybe up to two to six weeks of work and a break of almost the same period. That means working for only half of the year. The oil and gas industry is one of the best-paying industries in several developing countries, including the big producers in Africa. The sector provides many opportunities to grow; experience is highly rewarded.

 The industry also provides training and development opportunities; they use up-to-date state-of-the-art technologies. There is a shortage of skilled workers in areas such as design and engineering. The industry rewards professionals that are quick to adopt the latest advancements and can provide hands-on solutions to challenges. Skilled workers also have opportunities for career mobility across the world. Production roles are still currently dominated by men; rough working conditions, long working hours, remote work and shift schedules. Several roles in science in the industry provide immense opportunities for women.

 The high investment in infrastructure in the industry complements investment in human capital. Employers provide excellent training to ensure talent retention. Available are perks such as bonus schemes, pension plans, health insurance, childcare support and travel opportunities.


World Petroleum Council
International Association of Oil & Gas Producers 
Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE) 
International Petroleum Industry Environmental Conservation Association (IPIECA)

 South Africa
South African Petroleum Industry Association
South African Oil & Gas Alliance (SAOGA) 

Association of Oil Marketing Companies, Ghana Civil Society Platform on Oil and Gas, Ghana Oil and Gas Service Providers Association 

National Oil Corporation of Kenya, National Fossil Fuels Advisory Committee, The Kenya Oil and Gas Association, Kenya Petroleum Oil Workers Union

Nigerian Association of Petroleum Explorationists (NAPE)
PETAN (Petroleum Technology Association of Nigeria)

South Africa
South African Petroleum Industry Associations (SAPIA), South African Petroleum Retailers Association.


  • Joan Njeri Njoroge

  • Austin Avuru 

  • Tom Cowan

  • Kevin Okyere

  • John D. Rockefeller

Kevin Okyere, Kofi Amoa-Abban, J.K Ahiadome, Ben K.D Asante, Fareed Amin Yakubu

Raphael Olala, Joseph Mburu, Wairimu Gitau, Mary Waithera Kabiru, Nolfassan Barongo, Hetul Chandaria, Monica Juma

Wale Tinubu, Folorunsho Alakija, Austin Avuru, Kevin Okyere

South Africa
Gwede Mantashe, Priscillah Mabelane, Nosizwe Nokwe-Macamo, Adrian Strydom.

Organisation of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)

Ministry of Energy and Petroleum, Ghana National Petroleum Council

Ministry of Energy and Petroleum

Nigerian Association of Petroleum Explorationists (NAPE)
PETAN (Petroleum Technology Association of Nigeria)

South Africa
South African Oil & Gas Alliance (SAOGA), Petroleum Oil and Gas Corporation of South Africa (PetroSA).

Companies in the industry cut across the upstream, midstream and downstream, with services covering Oil Exploration, Drilling, Geophysics, Seismics, Data Processing, Geosciences, Survey, Drilling & Well Services, Directional Drilling, MWD, Mud Logging, and Reservoir Services.

 BP, Saudi Aramco, Total, Qatar Petroleum, Halliburton, Schlumberger, Chevron, ExxonMobil, Eni, Phillips 66, Gazprom, Valero, CNPC, Sinopec, Rosneft, Lukoil, Baker Hughes, Weir, Emerson, Rockwell Automation, Honeywell, Nexans, Penspen, Churchill Drilling Tools, Topaz energy and marine, Proserv, Welltec, SPX Flow, PetroChina, Vitol

South Africa
Engen Petroleum, Imvume, Sasol, PetroSA, Transnet Pipelines, Total South Africa, Efora Energy Limited, Impact Oil and Gas, MOGS Oil and Gas Services, Equinor, SAPREF, Astron Energy (Pty) Ltd, Astron Group.

Tullow Ghana Limited, Vitol, Kosmos Energy, Aker Energy, Underground Mining Alliance Limited, Zoil Services Limited, Gro Oilfield Alliance Ghana Limited, Eni Ghana Exploration and Production Limited, Rigworld International Services Limited, Maersk Drillship IV Singapore PTE Limited, Stratcon Energy and Trading Limited, Comexas Oil & Gas Limited, Springfield Group, Orsam Oil and Gas, Ghana National Petroleum Company, PetroSA, Anadarko, Lukoil, Hess Ghana Limited, Saltpond Offshore Producing Company, Schlumberger, Baker Hughes, WeatherFord, OceanRig, Technip, Total Petroleum Ghana Limited, Eagles Petroleum, Frimps Oil Company Ltd, Tema Fuel Company, Top Oil 

Vivo Energy Plc, Total Energies, Rubis Energy Kenya, Libya Oil Kenya Ltd, Tosha Energy, Engen Petroleum, National Oil Corporation of Kenya, Kenya Petroleum Refineries Limited, Hashi Energy, Hass Energy, Galana Oil Kenya Limited, Astrol Petroleum Limited, Global Oil Petroleum Limited, Exxon Mobil, Riva Petroleum Dealers Limited, Lexo Energy, Frenchlab, Quality Experts Ltd, Getgas Kenya, Nano Doctor Africa, Gas Africa Limited, Kenya Shell Ltd, Xenom Energy, Noble Gases International Limited

Lekoil, Addax Petroleum, OANDO, CONOIL, Seplat, Sapetro, Niger Delta Exploration & Production Plc, Eterna Plc, NNPC, NLNG, Saipem Contracting, Elf Petroleum, Nexen Petroleum Nigeria Ltd, CNOOC International, Afren Energy Resources, Alfred James Petroleum, Allied Energy Resources (Nigeria), Amalgamated Oil, Amni International Petroleum Development, Atlas Oranto Petroleum Oil, Camac Nigeria, Conoil Producing, Dubri Oil, Equator Exploration Nigeria, Express Petroleum & Gas, Famfa Oil, Petrolex, Midlantic International, Millenium Oil & Gas Company (Mogcl), Moni Pulo, Noreast Petroleum,

Oil World, Aiteo, Amni, Ardova Plc, Optimum Petroleum Dev, Orient Petroleum Resources Limited, Oriental Energy Resources, Pan Ocean Oil Corp. (Nigeria), Sahara Energy Fields, MRS Oil Nigeria Plc

Solgas Petroleum, TREXM, MRS Oil Nigeria Plc, Nigeria Gas Company, Taleveras, Nigaz Accugas Limited, Gaslink Nigeria Ltd.

South Africa
Petroleum Oil and Gas Corporation of South Africa (PetroSA), Sasol, Anschutz (Pty) Ltd, DIG Oil Exploration, Energy Africa Limited, Forest Exploration International (Pty) Ltd,  Labat Africa Ltd, SacOil Holdings Ltd, Sasol Chemical Industries Limited, Shell South Africa Energy (Pty) Ltd, Sungu Sungu Group, Global Offshore Oil Exploration (Pty) Ltd, Petroline Holdings, Chevron, SA Oil and Gas Alliance, SacOil Holdings Ltd, Schlumberger, Total South Africa (Pty) LTD, Totalgaz, WorleyParsons.

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