Bridgia

Telecommunication

Industry Profile

Overview of the Telecommunication Industry

The telecommunications industry involves companies that make exchanging information by electronic means possible. It refers to all types of voice, data and video communication. It consists of telephone (both wired and wireless) operators, satellite companies, cable companies, and internet service providers.

The telecommunications sector consists of three primary sub-sectors: telecom equipment (the largest), telecom services (the next largest), and wireless communication.

  • Telecom Equipment:
    Telecommunication equipment was related initially to telephone network equipment, but it has since expanded to include more modern IT technology. This includes mobile devices and base stations, contact centre PBX equipment, IP telephony, and LAN and WAN networking equipment for traditional and enterprise networks. Enterprise networking equipment integrates consumer and commercial systems and technologies and private data, voice networks, and public switched telephone networks (PSTNs). Examples are Ericsson, ZTE, Huawei, Nokia Networks, Alcatel Lucent, and other telecom equipment management firms. In addition, companies that make devices, such as Apple, Samsung, Huawei, Infinix, Xiaomi, and others, are also in this category. This group also includes companies that provide the chips utilised in these devices.
  • Telecom Services Providers (a.k.a Mobile Network Operators)
    Telecommunications services include voice, text, and data services over a significant location. The most standard telecommunications service is phone service, which is done on either a wired or wireless standard. Other services may include the internet, television, and networking for businesses and homes. Developed companies even provide devices as a finance contract. E.g. AT&T, Verizon, T-Mobile, MTN, Airtel, Orange, Safaricom and Globacom.

  • Wireless Communications Service Providers
    Telecommunication and data transmission without wires are referred to as wireless. In a broad sense, wireless refers to any telecommunications or data transfer method in which signals are sent using electromagnetic waves rather than wires or cables. Customers can get wireless network solutions from companies in this area—for example, AT&T Mobility and Dish Wireless.

Traditional telephone calls are the industry’s biggest revenue generator. Thanks to advances in network technology, today, telecom has become less about voice and increasingly about text (messaging, email) and images (e.g. video streaming). In addition, high-speed internet access for computer-based data applications such as broadband information services and interactive entertainment is pervasive. Digital subscriber line (DSL) is the leading broadband telecom technology. 

Other companies from other industries like the banking industry play an essential role in the telecommunications industry. Also, companies that offer screen insurance and contract financing for phones, media, music, and the entertainment industry that provide VAS and OTT contents are players in telecom. Telecom is also a player in the industries mentioned above. They now offer financial services, entertainment with OTT content and VAS, and even digital advertising.

The fastest growth in this industry comes from value-added services (VAS) delivered over mobile networks. Value-added services add value to the standard service offering. As a result, subscribers use their phones more, allowing the operator to drive up their average revenue per user. Examples of VAS offered by telecom operators are Live streaming, Location-based services, Missed call alerts and voicemail box, Mobile advertising, Mobile money and M-commerce based services, Mobile TV and OTT services, Ring tones, Online gaming, Ringback tone (RBT and RRBT), SMS chatting and dating premium services, etc.

Global View
At an annual growth rate of 8.5 per cent, the global telecom industry is predicted to rise from $2,642.14 billion in 2021 to $2,866.61 billion in 2022. Companies are reorganising their operations and recuperating from the COVID-19 impact. The restrictive containment measures such as social distancing, remote working, and the shutdown of commercial activities created operational issues. At a CAGR of 7.4%, the telecom industry is estimated to reach $3,818.36 billion in 2026. (Business Research Company)

Africa
According to a Brookings Institution report, In recent years, the ICT sector in Africa has grown, a trend likely to continue. Mobile technologies and services alone have generated 1.7 million direct jobs (both formal and informal). It contributed $144 billion of economic value (8.5 per cent of the GDP of sub-Saharan Africa). In addition, it contributed $15.6 billion to the public sector through taxation. Telecoms revenue is expected to be $53.3 billion with a CAGR of 2.9% between 2018 and 2023. Also, this will be amidst affordability, regulatory and macroeconomic challenges.

Research results showed that growth in mobile phone penetration had contributed significantly to the GDP per capita of the region after controlling for several other variables. For example, a 10% increase in mobile phone penetration results in a 1.2% change in GDP per capita.

An International Telecommunication Union study found that 10 per cent greater mobile broadband penetration would generate a 2.5 per cent rise in Africa’s GDP per capita.

Ghana
Ghana has an aggressively growing telecommunications industry with five registered operators. Mobile subscriptions increased from 11,713,699 in December 2008 to 40,934,875 as at 2018. The data segment has also witnessed significant improvement over the years, with mobile data penetration growing from 33.8% in 2013 with a total subscription of 10.32 million to 88.8% with a total subscription of 26.18 million (i.e. 2G/3G mobile data) in 2018. The total subscription for 4G data was 1.12 million. These statistics have aided with the setting up of Tourist Information Centres in various districts of Ghana, facilitating the sharing of information, communication from any part of the world and online reservations.

To improve accessibility and affordability of telecommunication services, the Ministry of Communications has erected 506 Towers out of the acquired 1,054. In addition, 198 sites have been integrated with donor Mobile Network Operators (MNOs). One hundred twenty-nine sites (129) are on air with roaming capability, and two core network data centres live in Accra and Kumasi. Furthermore, 800 communities have been provided with broadband infrastructure.

Kenya
According to the Economic Survey 2020, the value of the telecom sector expanded by 10.3%, from $3,870 million in 2018 to $4,270 million in 2019. Business Monitor International (BMI) reports that Kenya’s Information Technology (IT) market was valued at $635 million at the end of 2020. Computer hardware sales totalled $360 million, and IT software sales were valued at $174 million.

Kenya is leading technological innovations in the region and is often referred to as Africa’s ‘Silicon Savannah.’ The Kenyan government is investing heavily in the ICT sector, recognising the sector as a significant contributor to the country’s GDP. As a result, the government set aside $210 million to fund various initiatives in the ICT sector in FY2021/2022.

According to the International Trade Administration, Kenya’s ICT sector accounted for up to 8% of the country’s GDP. Moreover, it was to create more than a quarter of a million jobs by the end of 2021. 

Kenya has the highest mobile money penetration rate globally. 58% of the Kenyan population uses mobile money. In 2017, The first mobile money service was launched. By March 2019, active mobile money transfer subscriptions were 32 million, with 223,084 mobile money agents. 784.4 million transactions were made during the quarter to March 2019. Over 80% of mobile money transactions in value terms are transferred to Safaricom’s M-Pesa service.

Nigeria
Telecommunications contributed 12.45 per cent of GDP in the final quarter of 2020, up from 10.60 per cent in the same period the previous year, according to data from the Nigerian Communications Commission (NCC). Increased demand, multiple years of policy execution, and a substantial investment drive in the sector have contributed to this expansion.

With 82 per cent of the continent’s telecom subscribers and 29 per cent of internet usage, Nigeria is considered Africa’s largest ICT market. With a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 4.6% and an additional 167 million subscribers in the next five years, Sub-Saharan Africa is expected to be the fastest expanding region. Over 55 per cent of this is estimated to come from Nigeria. As of May 2021, the NCC predicts that the country has approximately 76 million broadband subscriptions (40% penetration) and 187 million phone lines, indicating 97.9% teledensity.

South Africa
The telecom industry in South Africa has one of the most cutting-edge infrastructures on the continent. Telkom, Liquid Intelligence Technologies, Broadband InfraCo, municipal service providers, and mobile network operators like MTN and Vodacom have all invested in enhancing network capabilities.

According to Wikipedia, South Africa has four licensed mobile operators: MTN, Vodacom (majority owned by the UK’s Vodafone), Cell C (75% owned by Saudi Oger, an international telecommunications holdings firm), and 8ta, a subsidiary of Telkom.

According to Statista, the income from mobile services in South Africa was almost 7.29 billion U.S. dollars in 2021, up from just over 6.7 billion U.S. dollars the year before. Around 2.29 billion US dollars in income came from mobile phone services in South Africa in 2021, while 3.38 billion US dollars came from data services during the same year.

Google’s Android operating system accounts for 83.67 per cent of the mobile operating system market in South Africa as of March 2022, according to Statista, making it the most popular mobile platform in Africa. With a share of almost 16 per cent in the same month, Apple’s iOS is the second-most popular mobile operating system in the nation.

  • 5G rollout
    According to the CCS Insight report, by 2022, global 5G network connections are expected to reach 1.34 billion. Several telecom companies in various countries are already implementing infrastructure to aid the use of the 5G network. 5G offers a wide range of features like higher data speeds, ultra-low latency, and more reliability, which is beneficial for all people. Countries like China, the USA, Germany, Spain, Italy, and South Korea successfully implemented the 5G network. It is used in some parts of these countries.

  • OTT and VAS content from telcos
    OTT platforms such as Netflix are redefining the commercial landscape for VAS services provided by telecommunications. The bulk of telecommunications carriers provides VAS by collaborating with entertainment sector online viewing platforms. Telecoms also provide VAS payments, content distribution, customer service, and interactive marketing in collaboration with content providers like Netflix. Furthermore, television is a well-known OTT service offered as a value-added service (VAS) by the telecom industry. 

  • Digital banking and mobile money services
    The telecom industry is evolving by transitioning into fintech. Telecoms now provide financial services through mobile phones as a value‐added service to their customers. Customers can directly send and receive money and even get loans without having a bank account. Its issuance involves both telecommunication and bank regulations. But for complaints about this service, the first avenue for redress is often the telecommunication company, if not the telecommunication regulator—E.g. Safaricom’s MPESA in Kenya, MTN MoMo, and Airtel Money.

  • Business solutions for SMEs 
    Telecom companies offer digital aids to SMEs such as the Internet of Things, Cloud computing, big data processing, and cybersecurity to improve their businesses. As small and medium enterprises seek to grow, telecom technological solutions provided for SMEs will aid their productivity and help them improve their services.

  • SmartCity, security and broadband for the public sector
    Telcos offer broadband technology/ telecommunications technologies enabling communication over a wide band of frequencies. These technologies are being used in smart cities to ensure smooth runs and in the public sector to aid communities.
  • A.I and chatbots for optimal service delivery and interaction with customers

    The telecommunications industry uses artificial intelligence in many aspects of the business. For example, telecommunications companies improve customer service and satisfaction through virtual assistants and chatbots and the artificial intelligence that run them.

  • Focus on data as the primary revenue driver
    Telecommunications companies collect and generate data from mobile devices and apps, wearables etc. Wireless data is expected to increase through the 2020s, and companies that use it to their competitive advantage will survive.

  • Shared Use of infrastructure
    Telecom infrastructure sharing has allowed for a more efficient rollout of next-generation networks. In addition, the sharing of towers and other passive equipment also translates into the sharing of expertise and best practices—for example, the shared use of infrastructure such as towers that companies like Helios and IHS provide.

    The infrastructure share in this industry has led to the reduction in capital expenditure (CapEx) and operating expense (OpEx), New/enhanced services, Faster geographic rollout, and Improved service quality.

  • High-Resolution Content
    As high-resolution content grows, so does the quality of traditional information media like films, photos, and music. Virtual, augmented, mixed reality (VR/AR/MR) and cloud-based gaming are examples of new information media that modern technologies can help organisations adapt. These new content necessitate high transmission speeds and low latency, encouraging companies to build high-capacity communications networks.

They include:

  • Wireless communications, 
  • Fibre optics application 
  • GSM handset development and production
  • Health impact of emissions and radiation
  • Intelligent agents for monitoring telecommunication networks
  • Computer networking
  • NFV for future communication
  • Ultra-Reliable Low Latency Communications
  • Small and movable base stations
  • Cognitive and Green Radio Communication
  • SDN/NFV based 5G Architecture
  • Quantum communication
  • Reliable communication also in vehicular Adhoc networks
  • Network/Information/Computer Security, Rural/Universal Telecommunication Access (RTA/UTA), EM Waves, and Antenna Technology
  • Physical transmission media Development, Frequency Spectrum
  • Management techniques, EMC/EMI (Equipment), Power Line Broadband Communications
  • Data/ LTE networks

By facilitating international collaboration and coordination, supporting technology transfer and capacity building, enhancing multi-stakeholder partnerships, and enabling data monitoring and accountability, ICT can increase the means of implementation for the SDGs.

ICT acts as a support structure for all 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), assisting in achieving targets, particularly universal coverage of essential services in health, education, finance, and energy.

SDG 5 – Gender Equality
The telecom industry contributes to achieving SDG 5 (Gender Equality) by providing digital access to both genders without discrimination and creating equal opportunity for both genders in the industry workforce.

SDG 8 – Decent Work and Economic Growth
The telecom industry is a significant contributor to the economic growth of several nations by providing platforms for connectivity to industries to aid innovation. Also, several jobs have been created through the infrastructures provided for youths and SMEs.

SDG 9 – industry, innovation and infrastructure 
Telecom is a significant driver of innovation as it provides access to network facilities being used across several industries. 

SDG 11 – Sustainable Cities and Community
Telecommunications technologies are being leveraged in building sustainable cities and communities as they help connect various things, e.g. sensors, devices, analytics tools etc., either directly or via the internet.

  • Inadequate power supply 
    Inadequate power supply in the country has led to the high operating cost incurred by several firms across the nation in a bid to operate. The telcos are not excluded from this challenge as several network towers depend on generators to function. The use of shared infrastructure has been how the telcos are combating the issue.

  • Last-mile connectivity, especially in remote areas
    This refers to a gap between a broadband internet service provider’s infrastructure and a customer’s home or workplace. For example, it’s been a challenge for telecommunication service providers to offer high-speed bandwidth services to every subscriber in rural areas because of the high cost of laying and maintaining fibre optic cable. So instead, telecoms can use other technologies such as satellites for connectivity in remote areas. Or FWA, which uses radio waves to connect a Point-of-Presence cell tower and an external antenna located in the customer’s home or business.

  • Political uncertainty and higher tax costs from multiple taxations
    Multiple taxations coupled with political uncertainties have been a significant issue in the Nigerian telecommunication sector. This discourages investments, denies long-term government revenue, and destroys the foundations of future growth.

  • Value-Adding-Services (VAS) presents a lot of opportunities
    Markets with a lot of competition, such as the telecom industry, might be tough to navigate. The purpose of every business is to make a profit and maximise profits. When margins are tight, however, this can be problematic. Telecom companies frequently employ value-added services to boost demand for core services to get around this. Freebies, call and data plans, unlimited text messaging options, and extra data for specific websites or applications, are likely to be offered by your telecom carrier.

  • Political interference and regulations in certain countries
    There are several laws and regulatory bodies in charge of the telecom industry. The laws guiding this industry vary from one country to another. While the laws are good and telcos are abiding by these local laws, they can hinder the establishment of new players as they have to adjust to the laws in that country.

  • Health concerns, e.g. radiation
    WHO has conducted extensive research into the possible health effects of exposure to many parts of the frequency spectrum. All reviews have concluded that, as long as exposures are kept below the limits, such exposures have no known adverse health effects. This is recommended in the ICNIRP (1998) EMF guidelines, covering the entire frequency range from 0–300 GHz. In addition, various studies conducted over the last two decades have proved that radiation has no harmful effects as long as the exposure isn’t for an extended period.

Telcos are enablers or drivers of digital innovations through the infrastructure of connectivity they provide, mobile devices built by some players in the industry which are used as digital platforms, and they drive technology across several sectors.

Over the years, Telcos have evolved from Communication Service providers (CSPs) to Digital Service providers (DSPs) to keep up with digitisation and serve their customers well. The transition from CSP to DSP has helped them optimise virtually every business process and workflow to increase efficiency, speed, accuracy and productivity. However, the transformation also necessitates an organisational shift that embraces digitalisation throughout every aspect of company culture. As a result, there is room for software opportunities in the telco industry and more transformation to come in the future.

Transitioning to the cloud and the availability of technological tools has also increased the need for talents, especially those with cloud expertise and analysts. These specialists can leverage big data for insights and further value creation.

Here is some Digitisation in the Industry:

  • 5G Network & Technology
    The next significant improvement for telecommunication networks and gadgets is 5G technology. It offers significantly faster speeds than earlier cellular broadband network standards and lower latency. In addition, massive machine-type communications (mMTC) enabled by 5G networks allow the establishment of high-density IoT networks, ranging from IIoT to smart homes. Because of its vast range of applications, 5G is one of the most important technology trends in the telecommunications industry.
  • IoT
    Internet of Things helps telecom companies to monitor base stations and data centres remotely. This reduces the downtime for the network. One of the most everyday IoT Telecom use cases is asset management and remote system monitoring. With the integration of IoT technologies, telecom companies can connect their diverse physical assets to the cloud. In addition, they can remotely manage their operations, investigate malfunctions, run firmware upgrades, and keep track of inventory.
  • Big Data
    Telecom firms can collect large amounts of data and create data pools with IoT sensors in mobile devices and apps. The telecom industry then uses the obtained data to provide critical business insights and better understand client usage habits. In the end, telcos can use the information to improve customer service, evaluate new goods, and monitor and optimise the network. As a result, companies in this industry can use big data to strengthen their company and gain a competitive advantage.
    Argument and Virtual Reality
    AR and VR technologies in the telecom industry have been game-changers. For example, AR and VR solutions have been instrumental in reducing the time and money spent on telecom hardware inspection while also ensuring continuous and reliable operation.
    With the aid of Virtual reality, complex business data can be presented in a visually appealing manner.
    By giving remote specialists real-time access to the evaluated gear, augmented reality can raise the quality of telecom equipment inspections to new heights.
  • Edge Computing
    Instead of using a centralised remote cloud, edge computing puts data computation and storage closer to the data source. This reduces latency, increases bandwidth, and simplifies maintenance while allowing industrial manufacturing enterprises to increase computing capacity at reduced costs by connecting devices with edge data centres. In addition, Telecom players are using this technology to improve End-user experience and minimise data interchange requirements.
  • Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning
    Other major digitisation in this sector includes artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML). The extraction of useful information from data collected by IoT sensors and devices is required for digital transformation. At the same time, the internet’s growth and complexity necessitate high speeds and low latencies, necessitating new internet connection management solutions. For this purpose, startups in this industry are creating AI solutions that address a variety of network performance issues.
  • Cloud Computing
    The widespread usage of IoT devices and the employment of more complex machine learning algorithms has resulted in a significant demand for computational resources. Migrating data, apps, and other business pieces to a cloud computing environment has numerous advantages. Cloud startups provide increased connectivity and integration options for organisations, including equipment, platforms, infrastructure, and company functions. Cloud integration technologies must be improved in all linked areas, from cities and factories to homes and automobile

Graduate careers in the industry are Information Technology, Engineering & Technology and Marketing Communication professionals with the following roles unique to the INDUSTRY:

Telecom Researcher, Field Manager, Network Designer, Product Manager, Radio Frequency Engineer, Telecom Engineers, Network Manager, Customer Service Representatives, Telco Systems Managers, Equipment Installers and Repairers, Data Analysts and Data Scientists, Business Support, Marketing and Communications,

Some of the highest-paid technical roles in the industry are in telecom network analysis, administration, design, systems and operations.

Highest Paying Jobs

Antenna Engineer
Wireless Communications Engineer 
Ic Design Engineer 
Ic Engineer 
Telecommunications Specialist 
Telecommunications Specialist 
Cisco Unified Communications Engineer 
Fibre Design Engineer
Unified Communications Engineer
VoIP Engineer

Communication and Persuasion 
The industry is very competitive, with many new technologies, devices, and products rolled out for consumers. Therefore, it is vital to communicate clearly and persuasively for a message to stand out and convince customers.

Analysis & Problem-Solving
Analysis and problem-solving skills help you figure out why something is happening and how to fix it. It is one of the most vital skills in the industry, especially those in technical and customer service positions. It includes determining the problem, developing solutions, implementing them, and assessing their effectiveness.

Initiative & Enterprise
The ability to quickly adapt to new situations and develop innovative solutions and ideas is referred to as initiative and enterprise. In a competitive industry like telecom, it is essential to have this skill to bring new ideas and innovations to the table.

Planning & Organisation
In any given role, it’s easy for a telecom worker to feel overwhelmed by information or work responsibilities. Therefore, being able to exhibit the ability to stay organised —even (and especially) under pressure—is highly valued in this industry.

Networking & Teamwork
The industry thrives on collaboration, as the telecom companies rely on working with other industry players. Therefore, individuals working in this industry must be able to work as a team with other professionals as this helps personal growth, increases job satisfaction, and reduces stress.

Continual Learning & Adaptation
The telecom sector is constantly changing. Each year, new technologies emerge that fundamentally alter the industry’s conventions and best practices. As a result, the ability to self-educate and swiftly acquire new information is critical for telecom workers. To stay relevant in your area, you must commit to lifelong learning.

Self Awareness & Management
Being self-aware allows you to see things from different viewpoints. This ability liberates one’s assumptions and biases while also developing better working connections with colleagues in the industry. It is a crucial ability because you’ll be interacting with people of different ethnicities who may not share your viewpoint.

Creativity & Critical Thinking
One of the implications of technology’s ongoing advancement in the telecommunications industry is the need to innovate and be creative. As a result, telecom employers want individuals who can think outside the box and occasionally go against their industry’s traditional procedures with creativity. 

Professionalism & Industry Awareness
Understanding and abiding by the workplace ethics of players in this industry is an important skill set to possess. It is also essential to know the trends in the industry as it allows you to identify and spot new opportunities.

 

Digital Skills
The industry generates a lot of data— big data especially. This can range from device data to personal customer data, which telcos can mine to create insights and optimise the service provided to consumers. So data science and analysis are essential skills to stand out in the industry.

You can work in this sector with any degree in this industry. Still, technical roles require having degrees like Computer Science and Engineering, Electrical Electronics, Telecommunication systems and computer networks, Applied Telecommunications and Network Engineering, Computer, Electronics and Telecommunications Engineering, Communication Engineering, Telecommunication systems and networks etc.

Postgraduate degrees related to telecommunications include but are not limited to this:

MSc in Telecommunication Engineering, Wireless Communications Engineering, Information Communication Technology, Global Navigation Satellite Systems, Electronics and Communication Engineering, 5G and Future Generation Communication Systems, ICT Innovation, Microelectronics of Telecommunications Systems, ICT for Internet and Multimedia, Communicative Electronics, Broadband Telecommunication Technology, Communication Engineering, 

Telecoms, Engineering, Computing and Information Technology. Transition into a technical role in the industry with one of the certifications listed.

Relevant Certifications include:
Cisco Programmes (CCNA, CCNP and CCIE)

Certified Telecommunications Network Specialist (CTNS)

Master Technician certification is a professional-level, vendor-neutral credential offered by NCTI. 

Certified Telecommunications Analyst (CTA)

Certified Wireless Analyst (CWA) 

Certified IP Telecom Network Specialist (CIPTS).

Other certification programmes are offered by the Telecommunications Certification Organization (TCO).



The jobs with the lowest entry barriers are those in customer service. However, graduates from all professions are eligible for management and marketing positions.

Several network companies in this sector do not recruit for technical roles as most of their specialised services are outsourced for management to partners. However, those companies do such technical roles recruitment.  

There are internship opportunities with big telecom companies. However, internships for engineering students do not always provide the necessary skill required. However, suppose you’re looking for technical jobs or internships. In that case, you should look into network equipment and companies that provide telecom network support.

In this field, graduate recruiting opportunities are accessible and are advertised via traditional or social media. Staying in touch with these outlets will help you stay informed about job openings in this field.

Aptitude tests are conducted before the main interview in this industry because many people apply for positions. The aptitude test narrows down the candidates who best fit the available roles before moving to the interview stage.

Telcos are big organisations, but they rely heavily on SMEs as partners to distribute their products. Telcos in Africa outsource their technical services to management partners and rely on other small businesses as their technology partners.

You would typically work in teams that range from research and development, technical installation, sales and marketing to technical support, and possibly design and user experience specialists.

With several telecom companies operating as multinationals, frequent travel is required for some roles. 

It is a highly competitive and fast-moving industry that regularly changes product offerings and customer feedback, which is never late to follow.

Big companies that focus on networks, devices, etc., pay higher salaries than the industry average. These companies also provide benefits like insurance, work leave, teamwork, exposure to new technologies, career growth, etc.

It is a highly competitive industry. Staff are very mobile in the industry, i.e. they move from one company to another. Also, most technical roles are outside the office, i.e. they work outside the typical office space as they often work on-site. Customer Service, sales & marketing, management, Data Analyst roles, etc., work in the office and some work from home.

The typical work hours for a telecommunications administrator are from 9 AM to 5 PM, Monday through Friday, in an office setting. However, longer or different hours may, at times, be necessary.



International
International Telecommunication Union (ITU), GSM Association (GSMA) 
Institute of Telecommunications Professionals (ITP)

Ghana
Ghana Chamber of Telecommunications, Ghana Journalists Association, Ghana Chamber of Technology

Kenya
Technology Service Providers of Kenya

Nigeria
Association of Telecommunications Companies of Nigeria (ATCON), Association of Telecommunications Professionals of Nigeria (ATPN), Association of Licensed Telecoms Operators of Nigeria (ALTON), Internet Service Providers’ Association of Nigeria (ISPAN)

South Africa
Wireless Access Provider Association (WAPA), Internet Service Provider Association (ISPA), Wireless Application Service Providers’ Association (WASPA), FTTX Council Africa

Global
Strive Mayisa
Mo Ibrahim
Mike Adenuga

Ghana
Emelia Adjei Ohene-Kena, Paul Adom Otchere, Paul Kwesi Damalie, Derrydean Dadzie, Latif Abubakar, Patricia Obo-Nai, Kwaku Sakyi-Addo 

Kenya
Buya Mukonzo Winfred, Wachira Waruru, Larry Madowo, Lulu Hassan, Victoria Rubadiri

Nigeria
Segun Ogunsanya
Bayo Adekanmbi

South Africa 
Gill Hofmeyr, Ralph Tendai Mupita, Irene Charnley, Monalisa Zwambila.

International
International Telecommunication Union 
African Telecommunications Union.
National Telecommunications and Information Administration
Federal Communications Commission

Ghana
Ghana Broadcasting Corporation, National Communications Authority

Kenya
Ministry of Information, Communications and Technology, Communications Authority of Kenya, National Communications Secretariat, Kenya Broadcasting Corporation

Nigeria
Nigerian Communications Commission (NCC)

South Africa
South African Telecommunications Regulatory Authority (SATRA),  Independent Communications Authority of South Africa (ICASA). Department of Communication.

This category includes network service providers (data, voice, message, internet services for customers), device manufacturing companies, and companies that make chips. Developed companies even provide devices as a finance contract. E.g. AT&T, Verizon, T-Mobile, MTN, Airtel and Globacom.

Global Companies
AT&T, Verizon, Virgin, Vodafone, GSMA, Huawei, Cisco, ZTE, Ericsson, Nokia Connectiviy Solutions, Telefónica, Deutsche Telekom, América Móvil, China Telecom, T-Mobile, Alcatel Lucent.

Satellite Operators
Iridium, Thuraya, Globalat, Inmarsat, ACeS, ABS, Singtel Satellite, Intelsat, Arqiva, Thaicom, EchoStar Satellite Services, Globecast.

Phone Makers: Apple, Samsung, Huawei, Motorola, Xiaomi, Oppo, LG, Lenovo, Vivo, Realme, Infinix, HMD Global Oy.

Service providers such as Helios and IHS.

African Companies/Startups

MTN Group, Vodacom Group, Telkom, Groupe Maroc telecom, blue telecom, Safaricom, Sonatel, Econet Wireless, Orange, Airtel, Eoh holdings, Orascom, Helios Towers, Tigo, Telecom Egypt, Mauritius telecom, Ethio, Inwi, Tunis Telecom, Etisalat, Ooredoo, Gabon telecom, Beeline.

Phone makers:
Transsion Holdings, Onyx Connect, Mara Corporation Limited (MCL).

Ghana
MTN Ghana, Vodafone Ghana, TiGO, Airtel Ghana, Globacom Ghana, Depresso, Gateway Communications, MultiChoice, Teligent Wireless, Huawei Technologies, Ericsson-Worldwide, Nokia, Teleperformance, American Tower, Millicom, CTDI, Transsion Holdings, ADB, Kirusa, Cybernet, IPay Solutions Ltd, BTL Plus, CelluLite Labs, LinkUp, Mobile Choice Ghana  

Kenya
Safari.com, Bharti Airtel, Huawei Technologies, Nokia Kenya Ltd, Orange Kenya Ltd, Teleperformance, Alcatel-lucent, Sitel Group, AT&T, Telkom Kenya, Finserve Africa Ltd, MTN Business Kenya Ltd, Sea Submarine Communications ltd, Space engineering ltd, Vodacom group ltd, Wananchi group Kenya ltd, ZTE Kenya ltd, iWay Africa ltd, Jamii telecommunication ltd, Liquid telecom Kenya ltd, Airtel Kenya, Safaricom limited

Nigeria
MTN Nigeria, Airtel Nigeria, 9mobile, Globacom, Spectranet, FiberOne, Ciudad, Tizeti, MainOne, IHS Towers, Smile, Surburban, IpNX, Galaxy Backbone, 21st Century Communications, IPNX, Netcom. 

Phone Markers: Imose Mobile, Afrione, Pliris Mobile, Solo Phone.

South Africa
Afrihost, Cool Ideas, Dabba, Gateway Business Africa, Gateway CommunicationsGS Telecom, Internet Solutions, MTN Group, Neotel, OTEL, Telecoms, Sentech, Telkom, Vox Telecom, Vumatel, Cell C, Safaricom, Airtel Africa, Vodacom, Allied Mobile Communications, Neotel, Mobile Telephone Networks (Pty) Ltd, Mobax Group, Econet Telecom Lesotho, Multisource Telecoms, Nokia, Plessey Pty Ltd, Virgin Mobile, Huge Telecom, HD Telecoms, FibreCo, ATC South Africa, Saicom, Alcatel South Africa.

Publications
GSMA Publications
NigeriaCom event
Nigeria Communications Weekly
Inside Telecom
Telecompaper
Total Telecom
Light Reading
Telecommunications Industry Association NEWS & PUBLICATIONS

Books
The Idea Factory: Bell Labs and the Great Age of American Innovation book.
Wireless Wars by Jonathan Pelson
Beyond Sputnik and the Space Race: The Origins of Global Satellite Communications by Hugh Richard
The Victorian Internet: The Remarkable Story of the Telegraph and the Nineteenth Century’s Online Pioneers by Tom Standage
The great telecom meltdown by Fred R. Goldstein
Eccentric Orbit: the iridium story by Joe Bob Briggs

Podcasts
The Telecoms.com podcast
NZ Tech Podcast
User friendly
Analysys Mason’s Podcast
Telco in 20
Avaya Podcast Network

Events
Digital Africa Conference Location: Online (https://www.digitalafrica.com.ng/
NigeriaCom Conference Location: Online (https://tmt.knect365.com/nigeria-com/)
Social Media Week Location: TBD (https://www.smwlagos.com/)
Telecom World Africa: Online(https://www.terrapinn.com/conference/telecoms-world-africa/index.stm)
Total Telecom Congress: London
Connected Germany 2022
SubOptic: Bangkok
China International Internet of Things Exhibition
Shanghai International Digital Signage System & Application Exhibition
Annual Media & Telecom Conference: Canada
SATELLITE Conference & Exhibition: Washington DC, USA

https://guardian.ng/business-services/new-operator-targets-nigerias-80-billion-telecoms-market/
https://www.globenewswire.com/news-release/2018/12/12/1665659/0/en/Sub-Saharan-Africa-53-3-Billion-Telecoms-Market-to-2023.html
https://www.thebusinessresearchcompany.com/report/telecom-global-market-report
https://www.grandviewresearch.com/industry-analysis/global-telecom-services-market#:~:text=The%20global%20telecom%20services%20market,5.0%25%20from%202020%20to%202027.
https://www.brookings.edu/research/the-fourth-industrial-revolution-and-digitization-will-transform-africa-into-a-global-powerhouse/
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/325065059_Information_communications_technology_and_economic_growth_in_Sub-Saharan_Africa_A_panel_data_approach
https://www.trade.gov/country-commercial-guides/nigeria-information-and-communications-technology
https://www.thebusinessresearchcompany.com/report/telecom-global-market-report
https://www.bachelorstudies.ng/Bachelor/Telecommunication/
https://www.masterstudies.ng/Masters-Degree/Telecommunication/?page=2
https://www.masterstudies.ng/Masters-Degree/Telecommunication-Engineering/?page=2
https://blog.feedspot.com/telecom_podcasts/
https://www.terrapinn.com/events/all/telecoms
https://10times.com/top100/telecommunication
https://www.phddirection.com/phd-research-topics-in-telecommunication/
https://www.ziprecruiter.com/g/Highest-Paying-Telecommunications-Jobs
https://phdprojects.org/phd-research-topic-telecommunication-engineering/
https://talkafricana.com/top-smartphone-manufacturing-companies-in-africa/
https://blog.bizvibe.com/blog/top-satellite-communication-companies
https://www.integrallc.com/africas-8-largest-mobile-networks/
https://www.google.com/amp/s/businessday.ng/amp/technology/article/how-excess-taxes-on-telecom-operators-hurt-consumers/
https://taylorwells.com.au/value-added-services-examples/
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/228279785_Mobile_Banking_Mobile_Money_and_Telecommunication_Regulations
https://www.startus-insights.com/innovators-guide/top-10-telecom-industry-trends-innovations-in-2021/
https://www.business2community.com/communications/game-changing-telecommunication-trends-to-follow-in-2021-02407459
https://digitalhumans.com/blog/top-telecommunications-industry-trends-for-2021/
https://www.atrebo.com/en/trends-in-telecom-for-2021/https://www2.deloitte.com/us/en/pages/technology-media-and-telecommunications/articles/telecommunications-industry-outlook.html
https://www.investopedia.com/ask/answers/070815/what-telecommunications-sector.asphttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Value-added_servicehttps://makeanapplike.com/top-10-telecommunications-technology-trends/

https://www.glassdoor.com/Explore/top-telecommunications-companies-kenya_IS.4,22_ISEC10023_IL.33,38_IN130.htm https://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20191112005516/en/Kenya-Telecommunications-Industry-Report-2019-with-Profiles-on-19-Companies-Including-Safaricom-Airtel-Networks-Finserve-Africa-Telkom-Kenya-Mobile-Pay-iWay-Africa-Kenya-Echotel-International—ResearchAndMarkets.com

https://www.trade.gov/country-commercial-guides/kenya-information-communications-and-technology-ict

https://www.tespok.co.ke/

https://www.kenyans.co.ke/news/71230-top-100-kenyans-2021

https://ict.go.ke/ https://www.ca.go.ke/

https://gipc.gov.gh/wp-content/uploads/2020/09/Recreation-and-Tourism-Services-Brochure-.pdfhttps://www.trade.gov/country-commercial-guides/ghana-information-and-communications-technology-ict
https://mofep.gov.gh/sites/default/files/pbb-estimates/2022/2022-PBB-MOCD.pdfhttps://www.pulse.com.gh/news/local/paul-adom-otchere-and-good-evening-ghana-win-big-at-nca-full-list-of-winners/45jkk62https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Achimotans
https://www.businessghana.com/site/news/business/188589/34-Individuals-companies-honoured-for-promoting-manufacturing-sectorhttps://siga.gov.gh/siga/sector/ghana-broadcasting-corporation-gbc/https://iipgh.org/tag/ghana-chamber-of-telecommunications/#:~:text=The%20Ghana%20Chamber%20of%20Telecommunications,Comsys%2C%20and%20C%2DSquared.https://nca.org.gh/https://marcopolis.net/top-telecom-companies-in-ghana.htmhttps://buzzghana.com/ghana-telecommunication-companies/
https://www.glassdoor.com/Explore/browse-companies.htm?overall_rating_low=3&page=2&locId=1421&locType=M&locName=Accra,%20Ghana%20Area&sector=10023https://www.f6s.com/companies/telecom/ghana/co
https://yen.com.gh/108474-list-telecommunication-companies-ghana-2019.html

https://www.statista.com/statistics/603835/south-africa-telecom-services-revenue-by-segment/#:~:text=Telecommunication%20services%20revenue%20in%20South%20Africa%202015%2D2021%2C%20by%20segment&text=Mobile%20services%20in%20South%20Africa,over%206.7%20billion%20U.S.%20dollars.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Telecommunications_companies_of_South_Africa
https://www.statista.com/statistics/604035/south-africa-mobile-services-revenue-by-segment/
https://www.statista.com/statistics/1063937/market-share-held-by-mobile-operating-systems-in-south-africa/
https://www.budde.com.au/Research/South-Africa-Telecoms-Mobile-and-Broadband-Statistics-and-Analyses
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Telecommunications_in_South_Africa
https://www.jobvine.co.za/insight/top10/telecommunications/
https://telecoms-channel.co.za/industry-associations/