Higher Education, also known as tertiary education, is the industry in the education sector which encompasses public and privately funded post-secondary institutions such as universities, polytechnics, colleges, training institutes, and vocational schools. These institutions consist of faculty and staff collectively involved in knowledge transfer and advancement through teaching, training, and research. They play a significant role in discovering and contributing to the body of knowledge; and thought leadership on societal issues. Higher Education is also known as tertiary is the industry in the education sector which encompasses public and privately funded post-secondary institutions such as universities, polytechnics, colleges, training institutes, and vocational schools.
It is the closest – of all the units of the education sector – to the industry. It is responsible for equipping a ready workforce for the labour market; higher institutions are often significant, and sometimes the largest, employers in their local communities. The job opportunities offered by the sector fall into Academia and Administration/Support. Academia is a top destination for graduates who are passionate about expanding the frontiers of knowledge in a field through research and are ready to support the academic development of students and other researchers.
It also encompasses service providers to higher institutions in consulting, student recruitment, learning technologies, career services and online learning providers. Also active in the industry service providers of knowledge, technology, and consulting services. Knowledge providers publish and make available educational resources for learning and disseminating research. Technology service providers develop education technologies for learning and digitising academic processes such as student enrolment and course management. Consulting activities are also a significant segment of the higher education industry, with higher institutions as suppliers and consumers of consulting services.
According to a World Bank Report in 2021, there are approximately 220 million tertiary education students across more than 20,000 universities globally. It increased from 100 million tertiary education students in 2000 and 89 million in 1998. There are an estimated 40,000 to 50,000 higher learning institutions worldwide; when considering other kinds of tertiary institutions,
Student enrollment is expected to rise due to the growing youth population and graduation rates in elementary and secondary schools, especially in South Asia, Sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America, the Middle East, and North Africa. In addition, research has shown a correlation between the number of higher institutions in a country and its GDP. This is due to the role higher education plays in contributing to the skilled workforce of nations to boost their productivity.
The higher education sub-sector currently generates more than $2 Trillion in annual revenue globally. The US alone surpasses more than $600 Billion in revenue, and UK universities generated £95 billion for the UK economy in 2017. As the industry grows, so are job opportunities in the Education management, administration of institutions, and student services providers.
In England alone, the higher education sector has reached about £50 billion in terms of GDP in 2021. Universities across the country contribute about £95 billion to the whole economy and directly or indirectly provide more than 815,000 jobs (universities UK media release, 2021).
The African Development Bank estimates 14 million students in higher institutions in Africa, representing about 6.4% of global tertiary education enrolments. This is low as just 6% of children in Sub-Saharan Africa will enrol for tertiary education, versus an 80% chance for a child in an Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) country. Unfortunately, there are limited opportunities for students as only 1,225 (uniRank) officially recognised universities exist in Africa, which is grossly insufficient to meet the demand for higher education across the continent.
There is still a wide gap to close in higher education financing as African Governments spend only about 5 per cent of GDP in the education sector. Higher education represents a small segment. There is explosive growth in private higher institutions by religious organisations, individuals and entrepreneurs to fill the access gap. Most of these private institutions focus on lucrative courses such as Computer Science, Law, Medicine and Business degrees and emphasise equipping graduates with skills for employability. However, despite the rapid growth, there is a need to widen access to tertiary learning institutions for millions of African youths by increasing the number of higher institutions.
In 2020, according to Statista, education in Ghana contributed more than seven billion Ghanaian cedis (GHS), roughly 1.1 billion US dollars, to the country’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP). This has followed the growing trend since 2015. As a result, the education sector was one of the leading GDP-contributing services in Ghana as of 2020.
According to the World Bank, government expenditure on education, a total (% of GDP) in Ghana, was reported at 3.8861 % in 2018. Ghana – Public spending on education, total (% of GDP) – actual values, historical data, forecasts and projections were sourced from the World Bank in August of 2022.
According to Statista, in 2020, education in Ghana contributed more than seven billion Ghanaian cedis (GHS), roughly 1.1 billion US dollars, to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP). In addition, this followed the increasing trend observed since 2015. Education was one of the leading GDP-contributing services in Ghana as of 2020.
The national education budget increased substantially in 2019 to support the rollout of the Free Senior High School (SHS) policy and other reforms. It has remained high in subsequent years. The government allocated GHS14.4bn ($2.5bn) to education in the 2022 budget, down from GHS 15.6bn ($2.7bn) in 2021 but up on the GHS 11.6bn ($2bn) in 2020. Education spending in Ghana stood at an estimated $227 per person in 2019, considerably higher than the West and Central Africa average of $130 per person.
Ghana’s higher education sector has blossomed in recent years. According to UIS data, Tertiary enrollments doubled between 2009 and 2015. It jumped from 203,337 students to 417,534 students within just six years. Like in other African countries, there has been expansion accompanied by rapid private sector growth. The number of private Higher Education institutions (HEIs) increased from just two private universities in 1999 to eighty private universities and colleges today.
According to the National Accreditation Board, the majority (70.5%) of students at public HEIs were enrolled in bachelor’s programmes. 22.4% studied for post-graduate diplomas and are overwhelmingly distance education students. Enrollments in graduate programmes were comparatively small—only 6.3% and 0.5% were enrolled in master’s and doctoral programmes, respectively, in the 2015/16 academic year. Introducing free senior secondary education was expected to boost the number of students entering higher education programmes from 90,000 in 2018 to 145,000 in 2020.
According to the World Bank collection of developed indicators from authentic, official data resources compilations, the government expenditure on tertiary education as % of GDP % in Kenya was reported at 0.68917% in 2015. Education and training have remained a priority investment for the government. The sector accounted for 5.2 per cent of GDP, and 21.0 per cent of government outlays in 2017/18. Government spending on education doubled between 2013/14 and 2017/18. Education sector expenditure expanded by 65.7 per cent from Ksh 251.2 billion in 2013 to Ksh 416 billion in 2017, as shown in Figure 5. Actual education expenditure grew from Ksh 236 billion in 2013/14 to Ksh 361 billion in 2017/18. There is a need to focus more on strengthening the link between education resource inputs, outputs and outcomes. The budgets allocated to technical and university education are underspent by up to 30 per cent.
Higher Education is also commonly referred to as Tertiary Education in Nigeria. It consists of Universities, Polytechnics, Monotechnics, and Colleges of Education. There are currently more than 200 accredited universities in Nigeria, with private universities rapidly growing to and now outnumbering public universities.
Most polytechnics and colleges of education are usually run as public institutions. Polytechnics have traditionally focused on STEM courses, emphasising skills-intensive and experiential learning programmes to equip graduates with hands-on technical skills. Colleges of education train teachers for kindergarten, primary and secondary institutions. Technical colleges run by governments and some entirely or in partnership with organisations in the private sector provide hands-on skills that can be utilised in the industry or independently.
Nigeria has the most extensive higher education system in Africa. However, it cannot meet the growing population’s demand – over 65% are less than 25 years old. Nigeria has around 2 Million students in its universities and almost 100,00 students abroad, representing less than 1% of its current population. According to a 2022 Nigerian University Commission (NUC) report, about 2.1 million students and a staff strength of about 170,000 non-teaching and 100,000 academic staff. Statista reports that there were around 12,000 professors in Nigeria as of 2020.
South Africa possesses world-class higher education institutions. There are 25 public higher education institutions in the nation, and they provide a variety of programs and research choices to both domestic and international students.
To increase access to higher education, South Africa’s higher education system underwent restructuring in 2003. Because of this, South Africa currently has three different kinds of public higher education institutions: traditional universities, universities of technology, and comprehensive universities.
According to data mined by SatsSA, 25 higher education institutions in South Africa spent a combined R55.6 billion in the 2014 financial year, of which 50% (R27.5 billion) went toward paying staff. From 2010 to 2014, the wage bill for all universities climbed by 9.9% annually, with the Mangosuthu University of Technology seeing the most significant increase (19.6% annually), followed by the University of South Africa (14.9% annually) and the University of Limpopo (13.3% annually).
- Distance/Remote learning
Distance or remote learning is not a recent development in higher educational institutions, but the Covid-19 pandemic and increase in technology have highlighted the benefits of this mode of education. In addition, distance learning gives opportunities to people who will otherwise not attend university due to distance, health challenges, financial issues or raising a family.
- Rise of private universities, which now dominate the higher education landscape in developing countries.
There is increased demand for university education. Unfortunately, traditional public universities cannot take in all students, especially in developing countries. As a result, private universities are fast filling the gaps created by offering students admission with fewer requirements, often at a more costly rate.
- MOOCs (massive open online courses) and nano degrees can contribute to credit.
The opportunity to learn from the best universities and professors anywhere worldwide for free or cheaply is the selling point of MOOCs. In addition, the willingness of many world-class universities to award certificates for the completion of MOOC has made many people designate it as the future of university education.
- The shift from classroom teaching to blended learning methods (online and offline) and now to online education; accelerated by COVID-19.
- Call for research to focus on solutions that society and industries need.
- Focus on entrepreneurship for students to become job creators, not job seekers. There are increased spin-out and spin-off universities. In the face of severe unemployment in developing countries, universities are incorporating entrepreneurship-focused education to prepare students for an uncertain future.
- Stronger emphasis on student outcomes in employability and closing the skill gap for career readiness.
- The globalisation of degrees and increased mobility of students
Academic mobility programmes, also known as student exchange, are gaining momentum as many universities partner with other universities worldwide to offer students the opportunity to absorb different cultures and facilities. As a result, students also gain a globally relevant degree.
Higher education administration, Community university partnerships; Program evaluation in higher education, student services in higher education, and teaching methods & curriculum for higher education.
According to the Springer Journal of Research in Higher Education, research areas include:
- Access and retention.
- Student success.
- Faculty issues.
- Institutional productivity and assessment.
- Post-secondary education governance.
- Curriculum and instruction.
- State and federal higher education policy.
- Financing of post-secondary education.
Research areas in Access to Higher Education include:
- The emergence of private institutions at all levels
- Performance and other gaps between private and public institutions
- Open and distance learning
- Cross-border education
- Management of educational institutions
Integration of Indigenous Science and Engineering Knowledge
Research areas from the European Educational Research Association are:
- Teaching, learning and assessment in higher education;
- Student transitions and graduate employability;
- Academic work and professional development;
- Policy, management and governance in higher education;
- Inclusion and diversity in higher education;
- Internationalisation in Higher Education
Higher education can contribute to all SDGs through teaching and research. However, the top SDGs include:
- SDG 4 Quality Education
Universities are at the forefront of discussion about inclusive, equitable and quality education. Universities are places of formal and informal learning in and outside of classrooms. Success in higher education often determines the quality of living and endeavours after school.
- SDG 8 Decent Work and Economic Growth
Higher educational institutions prepare people for meaningful work and successful careers. Success in academics usually translates to the number of career opportunities and initiatives an individual will take.
- SDG 9 Industry Innovation and Infrastructure
Universities are at the centre of research for Innovation and solutions that solve real-life challenges. As a result, industry-relevant skills that can drive Innovation are taught in higher educational institutions.
- A limited number of higher educational institutions:
A limited number of higher education spaces cannot meet the demand. Many publicly-owned higher institutions have students who surpass the recommended faculty to students ratio. There is a need to widen access to higher education for students at an affordable price to include a broad range of people.
- Obsolete curriculum and poor teaching:
Need for a curriculum for preparing graduates with relevant skills for successful integration into the labour market. Universities in developing countries are known for drill-to-kill teaching methodology, imported techniques and solutions which are irrelevant in the local context. This creates discontent, confusion and a lack of interest in many students.
- Inadequate funding of publicly owned higher institutions compared to their global counterparts:
Public universities, especially in African countries, are usually at the receiving end of leaders syphoning educational funds. This is evident from the constant strikes resulting from unpaid salaries/benefits and the poor condition of learning facilities in many universities.
- High cost of higher education in developing countries:
Inflation which causes an increase in operating expenses makes university education unaffordable for many people in developing countries. In addition, private institutions which should increase the number of opportunities available to students are usually too expensive for the middle class.
- The academia-industry gap:
It results in inadequate research funding by the private sector, the inability of academia to commercialise research and not training graduates ready for the industry.
- Incessant disruption of the academic calendar:
The lack of proper funding and corruption in the educational sector, workers’ strike actions and students’ protests have led to the closure of government-owned higher institutions in some developing nations. Also, continuing academic activities is difficult or impossible during crises like a pandemic because the necessary facilities for online and distance learning have not been provided.
Digital Marketing to Boost Enrollment. Higher institutions promote their offerings to students, parents and guardians through digital marketing channels. Higher institutions can target individuals based on their online search patterns, social media profiles, student support applications, or data obtained through third-party providers.
Digital Delivery of Services. Higher institutions have portals for students and staff to have access to services. These portals may include those for course registration, result checking, hostel reservations, career support, and access to social services available in the institution. Some platforms also utilise data from student interaction with these portals to predict student disengagement for administrators to reduce student churn rates.
Digital Tools to Support Research and Scholarship. Researchers in higher education are adopting digital tools to support data collection, manage data, and mine them for insights using algorithms that range from statistics to deep learning. Various tools also exist for managing the research publishing process, which provides a range of solutions that include tracking references, checking for plagiarism, and tracking the performance of publications.
Online Delivery of Knowledge and Assessments. Mobile devices and connectivity technologies have made learning anywhere possible. For example, students can access thousands of textbooks or journals on their phones, and professors can track students’ engagement and determine which students need more attention or help. In addition, COVID-19 has accelerated the adoption of proctoring tools to conduct exams for students from their homes, with remote supervision using machine learning algorithms to ensure integrity.
Personalised and Adaptive Learning. With the increase in discussion on equity and inclusion in Higher educational institutions, many schools now implement adaptive learning platforms that use computer algorithms and artificial intelligence to deliver custom learning experiences based on an individual student’s needs. Examples of adaptive learning tools include smart sparrow, DreamBox and Knewton.
Adoption of New Learning Technologies. Augmented reality apps are fast becoming great alternatives to teaching laboratories and classroom whiteboards. Students can access and learn to use equipment virtually and carry out practicals through simulations. This helps reduce cost since the purchase or replacement of equipment will not be necessary, and it ensures safety because students can have good practical experience without dissecting or harming anything or working with dangerous equipment.
Data Protection. Higher institutions deal with sensitive information such as personal records, research documentation, and intellectual property. This makes the Industry a target for ransomware attacks. As a result, institutions are investing in Identity and Access Management (IAM) solutions and training staff & students on security measures.
Higher Education is an industry open to graduates from all degrees, with a minimum of a 2:1 degree as a requirement for most academic positions. However, a post-graduate degree can be a supplement for those who finished with less than a 2:1 and want to pursue academic careers in higher education. Positions in academia include:
Graduate/Teaching Assistant, Teachers/Tutors, Lectureship, Professor, Research Fellow, Teaching fellow, Post-doctoral fellow
Administrative and supporting service positions in the industry include:
Academic Affairs, Library Services, Registry, Bursary, Student Affairs and Services, Laboratory and Research, Knowledge Exchange and Public Engagement, Development and Alumni Relations, Liaison and partnerships offices, Admissions and Enrollment, Student Services and Advising, , Career Services, Guidance and Counselling, Sports management, Publications, Grant and Research office.
Other careers in the industry are in consulting, knowledge management, corporate training, publishing, academia-industry linkage, information technology, and other areas in higher education.
The highest earners are professors and academicians with a doctorate in specialist areas such as biotech and nuclear engineering. For non-academic jobs, the highest paying jobs are in education consulting and student enrollment. There are also jobs in financial aids, academic advising, career services, alumni relations, fundraising and endowment management.
- Communication and persuasion: academic staff of higher education institutions must be good communicators to effectively teach, write, and deliver presentations to students and colleagues. The lack of this skill is the leading cause of students’ loss of interest in academic activities. All higher education stakeholders need communication and persuasion to work together in a complex system such as a university.
- Critical thinking and creativity
Universities do not exist only to teach but also to contribute solutions to societal problems. Therefore, thinking of and carrying out research works to address specific issues in the community or nation requires strategic thinking ability and creatively building on extant literature by other scholars.
- Continual learning, adaptation
The higher education sector is dynamic. It is the bedrock for many technological advancements and societal change and, as such, cannot remain stagnant itself. Therefore, University employees must continually learn and develop themselves to stay abreast of changing curricula, new industry needs, and new knowledge/research trends.
- Analysis and problem-solving
Teaching is a practical profession, and university teachers need to impart to students the ability to identify patterns and cause and effect relationships in real-world problems.
- Professionalism and industry awareness
In the higher education system, an impression is one of the most critical factors shaping teacher-student interaction. Therefore, university staff need to maintain boundaries in working with students and faculty members and keeping up with industry developments through on-the-job training, seminars, and productive collaboration with colleagues.
- Digital Skills
Content development for interactive teaching and data science for research data analysis are basic digital skills needed to deliver interactive and elaborate education in higher educational institutions.
For jobs in academia, the minimum requirement for most institutions is a Master’s degree in your field. It may not be required for first-class students in some institutions. Enrolment in a PhD programme is often expected. A post-doc and membership in research groups also provide a platform for a successful academic career.
For non-academic jobs, professional training and programmes in education administration and management exist. A Master of Education degree can also be paired with relevant work experience and training for specialisation in student affairs, academic advising, and residential life. Senior positions typically prefer candidates with both experience and a doctorate.
Their usual qualifications apply to people with broader accounting and information technology disciplines.
Though occasional research or teaching positions may open for top students with an undergraduate or MSc degree, a PhD (completed or in view) is a requirement for academic jobs in higher institutions. In addition to research work with a record of journal publications and presentations, a quality MSc and PhD programme can provide interest and readiness for teaching or other forms of institutional knowledge transfer. Furthermore, industry experience can be an advantage for entering institutions focusing on student employability and industry-applicable research.
A challenge in academia today is the fierce competition for lecturing and research positions due to the long-term careers of faculty members. It is becoming more difficult for young researchers to find roles in universities, especially where funding is limited. Another side of this challenge is that the brightest students may prefer to go directly into the industry for a more attractive salary. However, this industry experience can be advantageous in finding a place in academia. Most institutions publish their open positions on their websites. Open positions are available in specialist journals, research blogs and websites, and organisations that provide grants for institutions. Room is always made for excellence; building a solid working relationship and taking volunteer academic roles can help. It is also applicable for administrative and support positions on campus.
Higher institutions offer a unique working environment like no other. Most learning institutions are well-planned in structure and layout, located far away from the bustling life of cities. As a result, they have a relatively relaxed and intellectually stimulating environment to facilitate teaching and research work. Some institutions, especially universities, polytechnics, and Colleges of Education, offer their faculty members and administrative staff accommodation.
The industry provides massive opportunities for work-life balance, diversity from accommodating faculty and students from all walks of life, equality and unending opportunities for career development as a hub of new knowledge. In addition, the job satisfaction level in the higher education sub-sector is relatively high for both men and women compared to other industries.
However, there is a need for academicians for continual relevance by staying abreast of developments through publications, workshops, conferences, and research. There can also be pressure to conduct quality research work with publishable and actionable results for replication. There is also a need to supervise student projects while guiding new researchers. Some positions are also tenure-based which would require external funding to remain open. Research fellows and professors might have to raise funds and grants to keep their work going.
Academicians are now commonly rewarded with their ability to attract top students and research grants to their institutions. However, academicians also have other opportunities to earn through consulting, speaking engagements and other forms of thought engagement. In addition, there are perks such as accommodation, the chance for long-term work, pension schemes, flexible working hours and opportunities to travel.
Student/graduate outcomes have become a prominent metric of the impact of institutions. However, student success requires also meeting the needs of faculty and alumni. Higher education is currently undergoing a massive digital transformation. It has led to the digitisation of several processes – from student recruitment, enrolment, and delivery of career services to measuring graduate outcomes.
International: International Association of Universities, Association of African Universities
Ghana Education Research Association, Ghana National Association of Teachers, Ghana Society for Education Technology
Kenya Universities and Colleges Association, Kenya National Association of Private Colleges, Kenya National Association of Technical Training Studies, Association of Private Universities in Kenya
Academic Staff Union of Universities, Association of Nigerian University Professional Administrator, and Senior Staff Association of Nigerian Universities.
Cape Higher Education Consortium, National Association of Distance Education and Open Learning in South Africa, Southern African Regional Universities Association.
- Dr Sherien Elagroudy
- Dr Marouane Kessentini
- Professor Mamokgethi Phakeng
Herbert Acheampong, Amadu Zulkarnain Mohammed, Alberta Asafo Asamoah, Edmund Owusu, Ebenezer Kojo Otoo
Ayub mohammed, Lizzie Wanyoike, Belio Kipsang, Chris Khaemba, Eddah Gachukia, Sam Mwaniki, Tonee Ndung’u, Yukabeth Kidenda, Leroy Mwasaru
Patrick Awuah, Afe Babalola
Roshan Ramdhany, Natsai Mazimbe, Santie Botha, Johann Rupert, Thandi Modise.
Ministry of Education, Ghana Education Service, Ghana Tertiary Education Commission
Ministry of Education, Commission for University Education of Kenya
Joint Admission Matriculation Board, National Universities Commission
Ministry of Higher Education, Ministry of Higher Education and Training.
As the higher institutions with the most extensive knowledge areas, universities dominate the higher education industry in student preference and employability. As a result, many polytechnics, which focus on STEM subjects, have converted to universities in several countries. However, the structures of colleges differ regionally.
Harvard University, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Stanford, Oxford University, University of Vienna, University of Athens, University of London, University of Manchester, University of Gothenburg, Tsinghua University, Peking University, Fudan University, University of Toronto, York University, Université de Montréal, Sciences Po, HEC, ETH Zurich, ESIEE, Ecole Polytechnique, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Cambridge University
Global Private Higher Education Providers
Laureate Education, Apollo Education Group, Inc, Adtalem global education, LCI Education network, Strategic Education Inc, Global University Systems,
Content and Technology Providers
Springer, Elsevier, Pearson, Emerald, Cengage, McGraw-Hill Education, MacMillan, John Wiley, Houghton Mifflin Company, Instructure and Blackboard.
Honoris United Universities, Ashesi University, African Development University, Pan-African University, Regenesys Business School, Université Catholique d’Afrique Centrale, KEDGE Business School, Management College of Southern Africa (MANCOSA).
The University of Ghana, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, University of Cape Coast, University of Education – Winneba, Ashesi University, Ghana Institute of Management and Public Administration, University for Development Studies, Valley View University, University of Mines and Technology, University of Health and Allied Sciences, University of Professional Studies – Accra, Presbyterian University College, Ghana Institute of Journalism, University of Energy and Natural Resources, All Nations University, Webster University Ghana, Academic City University College, Koforidua Technical University, Pentecost University College, Ghana Technology University College, Catholic University College of Ghana, Garden City University College, Regional Maritime University Central University, Kumasi Technical University, Lancaster University – Ghana, Regent University of Science and Technology, E-Campus, Team BSE, Eliaversity, Blossom Academy
University of Nairobi, Kenyatta University, Strathmore University, United States International University of Africa, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Egerton University, Moi University, Mount Kenya University, The Catholic University of Eastern Africa, Technical University of Kenya, Kenya Forestry Research Institute, Kenya School of Government, Kenya Medical Training College, Tangaza University College, Amani Institute, Kenya Utalii College, East Africa Institute of Certified Studies, Rift Valley Technical training institute, Institute of Advance Technology Kenya, Kenya Institute of Management, Nairobi Institute of Business Studies, Kenya Technical Trainers College, Rift Valley Institute of Science and Technology, East African School of Aviation, Kenya School of Monetary Studies, The Kisumu National Polytechnic.
Pan-Atlantic University, University of Ibadan, University of Ilorin, Obafemi Awolowo University, Covenant University, Bowen University, Nile University, Yaba College of Technology, Polytechnic Ibadan, Ahmadu Bello University, Obafemi Awolowo University, University of Nigeria, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Ladoke Akintola University of Nigeria, BABCOCK, Auchi Polytechnic, LASPOTECH, Federal Polytechnic Ede, Federal Polytechnic Nekede, Nigeria Defence Academy, Federal Polytechnic Nasarawa Admission, Federal Polytechnic Nasarawa, Delta State Polytechnic Institute of Management and Technology (IMT), Enugu, Nigeria Defence Academy, Aba Boys Technical College, Government Technical College. Yola, Government Technical College. Ikot Ada Idem.
Cape Peninsula University of Technology, Nelson Mandela University, Central University of Technology, Durban University of Technology, Mangosuthu University of Technology, Tshwane University of Technology, Vaal University of Technology, University of South Africa, University of Venda, University of Zululand, Walter Sisulu University, University of Limpopo, University of Pretoria, University of Stellenbosch, University of the Witwatersrand, University of KwaZulu, North-West University, Rhodes University.v
- So you want to be a Professor? P. Aarne Vesilind
- Brilliant Academic Writing, Bill Kirton
- The Innovative University: Changing the DNA of Higher Education from the Inside Out by Clayton Christensen
- The Higher Education Management Handbook by Peter McCaffery
- Leadership in Higher Education
Several conferences are hosted in and on higher education each year, providing an opportunity to connect with other academics and higher education professionals. You can check the departments’ websites of your interest to see the event they organise and the conferences they partake in. Some of these include:
- Association of African Universities (AAU) Workshops
- Leadership in Higher Education Conference
- University World News
- Times Higher Education
- Inside Higher Ed
- The Chronicle of Higher Education
- Education Dive
- Future U (how current trends may affect the future of higher education)
- Connect EDU Network (a network of podcasts covering a variety of diverse higher education topics)
- Higher Ed Live (recorded live shows spanning admissions, marketing, advancement and student affairs)
- Research in Action (and You Got This)
- Teaching in Higher Ed
- A Beautiful Mind
- Good Will Hunting
- The Great Debaters
- Higher Learning
Impact of Covid-19
Higher Education has been one of the industries hugely impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic in many forms. The travel restrictions have made it difficult for international students to obtain visas. Local travel has also been affected. As a result, several higher institutions have shifted to online classes and assessments, which many institutions previously saw as a fallback to face to face interactions. Blended learning has also increased for higher institutions to comply with COVID-19 guidelines. Graduation and welcoming of new students have been held online. The pandemic is accelerating the pace of digital transformation in the higher education industry.
The pandemic has shifted the research focus of several academicians who are now working on finding solutions to the pandemic and measuring its impact. Although the job security of permanent university workers is intact – the temporary jobs created from students’ presence on campus have been disrupted.