Industry Profile

The Banking Industry is the money industry. The activities in the sector include; deposit, savings, savings & loans, investments, financial advisory, asset & wealth management, project financing, microfinance, and investment banking.

The main broad divisions are: 

Commercial Banking
Commercial banking focuses on products and services specifically designed for businesses, such as deposit accounts, lines of credit, merchant services, payment processing, commercial loans, global trade services, treasury services, and other business-oriented offerings. A commercial bank is a financial institution that accepts deposits, offers to check account services, and makes various loans. In addition, they offer financial products like certificates of deposit (CDs) and savings accounts to individuals and small businesses.

Investment Banking
Investment banking is a segment of banking operations that helps businesses raise capital. It involves various financial services, like advisory and financing of Mergers and Acquisitions (M&As); leveraged finance, which consists of lending money to firms to purchase assets and settle acquisitions. It also involves restructuring that improves the structures of companies to make a business more efficient and profitable. Additionally, taking companies to the public market to raise capital and trading securities such as stocks and options for their accounts.

Merchant Banking
Merchants banks specialise in working with businesses and high net worth individuals in areas like project finance and promotion of international financial and trade activities. Merchant Banks typically deal with small to medium-sized companies to provide a variety of financing instruments and can sometimes be direct investors in their clients. Other services they provide include international funds transfer and letters of credit (LOC).

Some banks also provide specialised services based on sectors and target markets. Some of these include microfinance banks, banks of agriculture, industry, and mortgage financing.

Global View
According to Statista, the global banking sector had an estimated market capitalisation of an estimated $8.58 trillion. The global financial services market is to reach $26.5 trillion by 2022. The combined value of banks listed across stock exchanges globally is an estimated $56 trillion. With the numerous non-publicly traded banks, the banking sector accounts for more than 14% of the global economy, accounting for listed banks in public markets.

The COVID-19 pandemic significantly impacted the banking industry. In the first quarter of 2020, 49,000 full-time employees worked at the 12 largest investment banks globally, which is five per cent lower than the same quarter in the previous year, according to Statista.

The financing activity in Ghana extends beyond the universal banks that make up the sector’s core to include many other institutions licensed by the Bank of Ghana. Regarding total assets, the largest subsectors are non-bank financial institutions, comprised of savings and loans companies, finance houses, mortgage finance companies and leasing companies. 

The Bank of Ghana reports presented that the banking sector’s total assets were GH¢129.06 billion in December 2019. This represented a 22.8% year-on-year growth compared with a 12.3% growth in December 2018. The more robust total assets growth in December 2019 reflected higher growth in the banking sector’s domestic and foreign assets. Domestic assets rose by 23.1 per cent to GH¢118.69 billion in December 2019, compared to the 12.5 per cent growth recorded in the previous year. Foreign assets grew by 19.8 per cent to GH¢10.38 billion during the same period, compared to a 9.6 per cent growth in December 2018. Banks’ total investments comprising bills, securities and equity increased by 27.0 per cent to GH¢48.45 billion in December 2019, compared with the 33.6 per cent growth recorded for the same period in December 2018. 

The spike in total investments in 2018 was mainly due to the special (long-term) resolution bonds issued to Consolidated Bank Ghana (CBG). As a result, long-term investments increased by 115.8 % in December 2018, while short-term investments contracted by 24.5%. A year after this development, growth in long-term investments (securities) normalised to 30.1% (GH¢33.03 billion) in December 2019, while short-term investments (bills) picked up by 21.1% to GH¢14.98 billion as of the end of December 2019. However, the more significant growth in securities in December 2019 compared to the short-term bills reflected banks’ preference for longer-dated instruments in 2019. 

The banking industry posted a more robust profitability performance in 2019. The industry’s profit after tax of GH¢3.31 billion represented a 37.7% growth compared with the 12.5 growth recorded in 2018.

Kenya is a leading banking market in the east and central African region. Many of its banks, such as Kenya Commercial Bank, NCBA Bank Kenya and Equity Bank, have a strong presence in other East and Central African countries through subsidiary operations. Banks with an external footprint have been able to use profits from these operations to offset some revenue-generating challenges caused by recent regulatory moves at home.

In 2016, The Kenyan government introduced an interest rate cap to reduce the repayment burden on borrowers. The cap limited lending rates to 4% above the central bank’s benchmark, and the deposit rate at 70% of the benchmark was designed to increase access to credit and return on savings, improving financial inclusion for both companies and individuals. However, the cap put pressure on the margins of banks. Instead, it led to a reduction in lending, especially to small and medium-sized businesses. In March 2019, the high court deemed the interest cap unconstitutional, stating that regulating interest rates disrupts the relationship between banks and their customers. As a result, the cap was repealed in November 2019, freeing banks to determine the interest rate charged on credit. Following this, banks began reviewing their charges to ensure that associated credit risks are accounted for while promising not to return to excessive levels. Returning rate-setting power to the banks has widely been expected to increase credit to the private sector. However, the full extent of the impact is still to be seen and may well be dampened by lenders’ challenges due to the coronavirus pandemic.

Financial inclusion in Kenya continues to grow. 83% of the population had access to formal financial services in 2019. This was up from 75% in 2016. Mobile banking is the main form of access, with 31.6 million active users. Despite stiff competition from non-bank actors, banks have benefited from developing digital services allowing mobile transfers, payments, and some lending services to be delivered at a reduced cost compared to transactions in branches. In addition to digital platforms, the introduction of agency banking in 2010, which offers services through third parties, has helped banks extend services to typically excluded populations. The service has been gaining traction at several banks. Inclusion rates in Kenya are expected to increase further as the region is recognised as a hub for technological advancements.

According to Statista, ss of 2020, total assets of the banking sector in Kenya corresponded to 65.7 percent of the country’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP). The ratio, which offers an insight into the relationship between services provided by banks and the economy’s size, increased from 62.7 percent in 2019.

The Central Bank of Nigeria reports that the total asset of the banking industry reached N59.24 trillion naira in December 2020. In addition, a recent National Development Plan (NDP) report showed that the financial sector grew the Nigerian Gross Domestic Product (GDP) from 2017 to 2020 by N44.2 Trillion. 

The banking sector led the market. It contributed the highest to the GDP at N34.6 trillion in 2017. It increased to N37.8 trillion in 2018 and N42.7 trillion in 2019. The market grew to N53.3 trillion in 2020, majorly due to the COVID-19 lockdown, which forced the increased adoption of digital banking.

In the last quarter of 2020, Nigerian banks employed about ninety-five thousand (95 000) individuals. This figure decreased by over eight per cent compared to the fourth quarter of 2019, when bank employees were One hundred and four thousand (104 000). The decline is due to the COVID-19 pandemic, which has impacted how banks interact with their customers.

South Africa
The South African banking industry is regarded as one of the world’s best banking systems. Significant local banks are also highly rated. 

Statista reports that South Africa is outstanding in the African banking industry. As of 2021, the aggregate tier 1 capital from the major South African banks reached 34.4 billion U.S. dollars. With its capital of over 13.8 billion dollars, the South African Standard Bank Group was the largest bank on the continent in 2021, according to African Business. According to a report by the Banking Association South Africa, the nation’s banking industry employs 153,846 employees, which is 3% of all personal income taxpayers in South Africa as of 2017.


According to the Banking Association of South Africa, the nation’s banking system is as advanced and actively regulated as or better than those of industrialised countries. As a result, the industry has drawn attention worldwide, leading to numerous foreign banks opening branches and multinational financial organisations buying stock in significant local banks.

Cashless Economy
There is an increasing call for less dependence on banknotes for people to carry out their financial transactions. Hard cash incurs costs from printing, transportation, storage, and insurance and can lead to a security risk for its handler. A cashless economy can help reduce this cost and help usher in innovative financial services while also making it easier for governments to collect taxes.

Financial technology has been around for decades to support financial institutions. However, there are now wide-ranging fintech solutions available to consumers and are disrupting some traditional banking services with innovative offerings. 

Challenger banks (a.k.a neobanks) offer banking services fully through digital channels. Traditional banks are also a crucial provider of fintech services with the internet and mobile banking channels—offered to customers. In addition, many banks have partnered with startups to leverage their infrastructure, regulatory experience, access to their customer base and new markets. 

Branchless Banking for Financial Inclusion
A significant population of countries in sub-Saharan Africa still lack access to financial services: especially the rural and aged segment. The barriers to access to financial services include geographical distance, language, and the non-robustness of products and services from financial service providers. However, these barriers are being surmounted: via digital banking services such as USSD, which works on mobile phones. And also, agency (a.k.a POS) banks are available across neighbourhoods in developing countries.

Open Banking
Open banking gives third-party service providers to access bank data typically locked within traditional banks. Service providers now leverage their access to consumer banking, transaction and other financial data to build innovative products and services using Application Programming Interfaces (APIs). It has opened the playing field for innovators and startups to create new solutions—for customers.

Digital Currencies
These are currencies; that exist only in electronic forms and can only be accessed and transacted digitally. The most popular forms of these currencies are cryptocurrencies such as bitcoin and Ethereum. However, not all digital currencies are cryptocurrencies. Despite the regulatory approval that cryptocurrencies are yet to gain, some central banks have issued their digital currency called CBDC. A popular one is the e-Naira by the Central Bank of Nigeria.

Responsible Banking
Responsible banking is a framework of banking practices adopted by banks to ensure that their banking activities align with the sustainable development goals (SDGs) and the Paris Climate Agreement. In terms of how they operate, what they finance, and actively promote.

The following research themes and areas are according to the Federal Reserve Bank of New York:

Capital Markets
Asset pricing; financial institutions; market liquidity. The interaction between markets, institutions and economic fundamentals.

Financial Intermediation Focus
A range of issues relating to the behaviour of financial institutions and the corresponding implications for borrowers. The health of the financial services industry and the economy.

International Research Focus
Open-economy macroeconomics, global finance, and trade. The monitoring and analysis of economic developments in industrialised countries: a range of International Economic Policy questions.

Macroeconomic and Monetary Studies Focus
Analysis of current national economic, fiscal, and monetary conditions. Monetary policy guidance for senior management.

Microeconomic Studies 
Applied microeconomics; labour economics; public finance; consumer finance. Housing, urban, and health economics. Construction and analysis of a wide array of micro data sets applying microeconomic theory and state-of-the-art econometric techniques.
Money and Payments Studies

The infrastructure at the heart of the financial system includes; the interbank and money market like the federal funds market, the repo market, and other over-the-counter markets: and payments and settlement systems.

From Nigeria’s 2020 National Research Fund document, these are:

  • Cyber and internet crimes, including internet security and e-banking fraud prevention
  • Commercial banks and corporate governance
  • Social housing: Housing economics and finance
  • Infrastructural Financing

From the KPMG SDG Industry Matrix:

SDG 1: End poverty in all its forms everywhere through developing new financial products, credit scoring methodologies, operating models and distribution channels (including mobile banking) to advance financial inclusion.

SDG 8: Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all by leveraging new business models and technologies to raise diversified sources of capital, including impact investment, crowdfunding, peer-to-peer lending and catastrophe bonds.

SDG 17: Strengthening; the means of implementation and revitalising the global partnership for sustainable development by adopting best practice principles and guidelines which align business practices with the SDGs and engage in multi-stakeholder initiatives.

Large informal sector
Many countries in sub-Saharan Africa have a wider informal sector than the formal sector. This reality poses many challenges for banks as many potential customers believe banks are for the educated and middle class. It also leads to dead capital, whereby most of the population has assets they cannot leverage. It also increases the risk of lending. 

Need for financial inclusion
Numerous people in sub-Saharan countries live in remote and rural areas where banks find it difficult and expensive to operate a branch. As a result, it has limited the branch operations of most banks to urban centres. The gap; is being filled by agency banks. However, a majority of this population remains financially underserved.

Access to Credit
Despite how profit-making retail loans can be, the uncertainty in the repayment of loans makes many banks in developing countries shy away from them. The interest rates by banks who do are usually double-digit to reduce their risk. Regulatory policies are being put in place by several Central Banks. Banks have become more open to providing loans to salary earners at attractive rates. However, millions of business owners who drive the informal sector still lack access to credit.

Fraud and Cybercrime
Bad actors within and outside the bank target customers and bank infrastructure to siphon money before their activities are detected. Most of these losses are self-managed by the victims and banks. However, banks can also be a vehicle for crimes through activities; such as money laundering, identity theft and card details for online transactions, and the collection of diverted funds. The persistence of these crimes has had a negative perception; on the integrity of national banking industries globally. 

Banking is a very competitive industry. Banks copy each other’s products and services, resulting in very little room for product differentiation and slim margins. Fintech companies are also leveraging investment in years of banking infrastructure to offer innovative products to bank customers using APIs. These developments have led to many banks redefining their strategies for future relevance. 

Regulatory Compliance
The banking industry is highly regulated. Banks report to several regulators across their operational markets and sectors; this is sometimes bureaucratic. It impairs their ability to innovate and move with speed in a highly competitive market where nimber startups can roll out their offerings faster in the same market.

Digitisation of Processes
Banking processes such as Know Your Customer (KYC), account opening, and credit risk analysis are automated.

Personalised Banking Experience
Banks can now use data to personalise product and service recommendations to users taking advantage of accessible big data. 

Omni-channel banking
Banking services are becoming increasingly available across all digital channels. They range from USSD and internet banking to chatbots.

Self-service customer support
Customers have more options to lodge their complaints and get a resolution through interactive interfaces with less reliance on human agents.

Risk Analysis with Artificial Intelligence
Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning can analyse loan applications for the likelihood of defaults based on Big data analysis of historical loans and the lender identity. 

Automation of Compliance Processes
Banks can now automate several processes such as anti-money laundering (AML) automatically by mapping their customer information with the database of security agencies in real-time.

The banking industry provides career opportunities for graduates from financial and non-financial programmes. Banks employ many support staff in customer support, Information Technology, Business Development, marketing, and Human Resources. Roles in the industry include:
Bank Teller, Marketing Representative, Financial/Investment/Operations/Risk/Compliance/Budget Analyst, Client/Financial/Investment/Mortgage Adviser, Accountant, Auditor, Compliance officer, Customer service, Data processing staff, Treasurer, Collector, IT support, Loan Officer, Financial Manager, Bank Manager, Bank Human Resources Manager, Bank Operation, ManagerBroker, Foreign Exchange Trader, Asset Manager, Relationship manager, Credit associate, Investment banking analyst, Financial Software Developer, Hedge Fund Investment Professional.

The highest-paying jobs in the industry are in Investment Banking, Private Equity, Hedge Fund Management, Options Trading, Treasury, Credit and Financial Analysis, Financial Advisory Services and Financial Software Development.

  1. Numeracy & Financial Literacy to keep tabs on numbers and provide sound financial advice to customers.
  2. Professionalism & Industry Awareness to look the part as you deliver services and stay abreast of developments such as regulatory changes.,
  3. Self Awareness & Management to be able to work under pressure,
  4. Teamwork & Networking to work with others and connect with people in the market to meet required targets,
  5. Communication & Persuasion to present, sell, advise, and build relationships with clients & customers.
  6. Relevant Digital Skills include data analysis for business intelligence.

The banking is open to graduates with financial and non-financial degrees. In addition to roles in finance, banks employ graduates with the aptitude and soft skills for jobs in Customer Support, Information Technology, Business Development, Marketing and Human Resources. Banking-related degrees include Banking and Finance, Accounting, Business Administration, Economics, and Agricultural Economics.

Professional qualifications relevant to the industry; are provided by professional bodies such as the Chartered Institute of Bankers of Nigeria(CIBN), the Institute of Chartered Accountants of Nigeria (ICAN), Association of Chartered Certified Accountants (ACCA), and the Association of National Accountants of Nigeria (ANAN). 

Professional certifications relevant to the industry include Chartered Financial Analysts (CFA), Certified Financial Planner (CFP), Financial Risk Manager (FRM), Chartered Alternative Investment Analyst (CAIA), Certified Public Accountant (CPA), Certified Management Accountant, Chartered Mutual Fund Counselor (CMFC), Financial Modeling & Valuation Analyst (FMVA), 

An MBA programme with a finance specialisation is valuable in the industry.

The top banks run annual graduate recruitment programmes promoted on their social media pages. The application process can take various forms, taking an online quiz or a shortlist of candidates to write aptitude tests through which they select for interviews. Additionally, some banks require selected candidates to meet some targets in fundraising as an entry task to join the bank.

An internship also helps you get a foot in the door. Banks also offer internship opportunities to students, providing an opportunity for early experience in the industry. In addition, it can help build relationships within the bank to take temporary jobs before joining full-time. Recruitment companies that work as staffing agencies for banks provide contract opportunities to work with banks.

Starting your career or having a consulting experience in Big 4 or Big 8 firms such as PwC, KPMG, Deloitte, and EY also provide a springboard to a career in the banking industry. Banks typically hire staff from these organisations into middle and senior roles. Investment banks usually require graduates with prior experience in the financial sector. 

The banking industry is one of the top destinations for new graduates. A job in the industry provides many opportunities to develop soft skills. It can, however, be demanding in the number of hours and targets required for staff members to meet. The industry is also known for its volatility in terms of job security.

Money is a language which everyone speaks. A career in banking provides a unique opportunity to meet people from all walks of life. Banks also give opportunities for graduates to work across some units. Meetings with individuals and in groups are typical in the day of an average banker. Banks have also become more aggressive in their pursuit of customers to deliver services wherever they are without them coming to the bank.

Banks, especially investment banks, pay some of the highest entry-level salaries for graduates; in many countries. For permanent staff taking through their graduate recruitment programmes and experience hiring, employee benefits such as medical insurance, leave, and retirement savings are standard. It is a highly dynamic and regulated industry, making it imperative to be abreast of the latest developments in the market and changes to government policies. 

A challenge facing the banking industry is the high utilisation of contract staff provided to banks as a cheaper source of labour by third party companies. According to Nigeria’s National Bureau of Statistics: two out of every five people work in Nigerian banks as contract staff. It means that 42.11 per cent of the workers lack the job security and benefits that full-time bank employees enjoy. Contract roles in the banking industry range from; Bank teller, Sales and Marketing; to loan collection. Contract renewal of such contracts rests on employee performance. 

Rising through the ranks in the banking industry does not come as fast as many workers in the industry expect. Nevertheless, it has led to some bankers moving across banks with promotions to a higher rank in each move. In addition, several banks have adopted promoting only internal staff to key leadership positions as a reward for loyalty.


World Bank, International Monetary Fund (IMF), European Investment Bank (EIB), Islamic Development Bank (IsDB), African Development Bank (AfDB), New Development Bank (NDB), Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB), World Trade Organization (WTO), Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency, International Center for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID), Financial Conduct Authority (FCA), International Development Association (IBDA), International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), African Development Bank (AfDB), and African Export-Import Bank.

Ghana Association of Bankers, Ghana Association of Banks 

Kenya bankers association, Kenya Association of Stock Brokers & Investments Banks

Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) (regulator), Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), Federal Ministry of Finance, Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC), and Asset Management Corporation of Nigeria (AMCON). Federal Inland Revenue Service (FIRS), Nigerian Stock Exchange Commission (NSE), Nigeria Deposit Insurance Corporation (NDIC), The Infrastructure Bank, and Development Bank of Nigeria (DBN).

South Africa
Banking Association South Africa, Southern African Institute of Chartered Secretaries and Administrators (ICSA), South African Institute of Chartered Accountants (SAICA), South African Institute of Professional Accountants (SAIPA), Institute of Internal Auditors (IISA), Institute of Accounting and Commerce (IACSA).

Amadeo Giannini, JP Morgan

John Awuah, Julian Opuni, Abena Osei Poku, Victor Yaw Asante

Joshua Oigara, Bob Collymore, Hope Murera, Jeremy Ngunze, Jennifer Riria, James Mwangi, Lamin Manjang, Gideon Muriuki, Jeremy Awori, Patrick Ngugi Njoroge, Charles Mudiwa, Gideon Muriuki, Peter Munga, Jimnah Mbaru

Aigboje Aig-Imoukhuede, Tony Elumelu, Jim Ovia , Segun Agbaje , Basani Maluleke, Prof Charles Soludo (Banking Industry Reformer)

South Africa
Lungisa Fuzile, Alan Patrick Pullinger, Nthabeleng Likotsi, Paul Harris,Thami Moatshe.

World Bank, International Monetary Fund (IMF), European Investment Bank (EIB), Islamic Development Bank (IsDB), African Development Bank (AfDB), New Development Bank (NDB), Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB), World Trade Organization (WTO), Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency, International Center for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID), Financial Conduct Authority (FCA), International Development Association (IBDA), International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), African Development Bank (AfDB), and African Export-Import Bank.

The Bank of Ghana, Securities and Exchange Commission, Ghana Stock Exchange

Central Bank of Kenya, The National Treasury and Planning

Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) (regulator), Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), Federal Ministry of Finance, Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC), and Asset Management Corporation of Nigeria (AMCON). Federal Inland Revenue Service (FIRS), Nigerian Stock Exchange Commission (NSE), Nigeria Deposit Insurance Corporation (NDIC), The Infrastructure Bank, and Development Bank of Nigeria (DBN).

South Africa
South Africa Reserve Bank (SARB), Financial Intelligence Centre, Financial Advisory and Intermediary Services Act.

Citigroup Inc, Bank Of China Ltd, Wells Fargo & Co, Credit Agricole SA, Agricultural Bank of China Ltd, Bank of America Corp, China Construction Bank Corp, Japan Post Holdings Co. Ltd, JPMorgan Chase & Co, Industrial and Commercial Bank Of China Ltd, HSBC, Deutsche Bank, Grameen Bank.

Standard Bank, ABSA, Ecobank, United Bank of Africa, FirstRand, Attijariwafa Bank, RMB Holdings, BMCE Bank of Africa, 

Monzo, Revolut, Kuda, Monese, Sparkle, Clyde, Digit. Flywire, Tide, Atom, Dwolla, Stripe, Klarna, Xoom, iZettl.

Absa Bank of Ghana, Ghana Commercial Bank, Fidelity Bank, Stanbic Bank Ghana, Standard Chartered Bank, Zenith Bank Ghana, Cal Bank, Citibank Ghana, Ghana International Bank, Export-Import Bank of Korea, Bank of Beirut, Consolidated Bank of Ghana, Access Bank Ghana, EcoBank Ghana, Agricultural Development Ghana, Bank of America, Societe Generale, Goldman Sachs, J.P Morgan, United Bank of Africa, Allianz, First National Bank, PNC Financial Services Group, Yes Bank, African Development Bank

National Bank of Kenya, Kenya Commercial Bank, Equity Bank Kenya Limited, Co-operative Bank of Kenya, Standard Chartered Bank Kenya Limited, Stanbic Bank, Diamond Trust Bank of Kenya, Barclays Bank of Kenya, NIC Bank, I&M Bank, Absa Bank Kenya Plc, CitiBank N.A. Kenya, Prime Bank plc

Access Bank Plc, United Bank For Africa Plc, Unity Bank Plc, Wema Bank Plc, Zenith Bank Plc, Bank Of Agriculture Ltd, Bank Of Industry Ltd, Central Bank Of Nigeria, Coronation Merchant Bank Ltd, Guaranty Trust Bank Plc, FCMB Group Plc, Federal Mortgage Bank Of Nigeria, Fidelity Bank Plc, First Bank Of Nigeria Ltd, FSDH Merchant Bank Ltd, Multivest Microfinance Bank Ltd, LAPO, Grooming Centre, Coronation Merchant Bank Ltd, Globus, NIRSAL Microfinance Bank, Fortis MFB

Private Equity Companies
Actis, African Capital Alliance, African Infrastructure Investment Managers (AIIM), Brait, Development Partners International (DPI), Emerging Capital Partners (ECP), Harith General Partners, Helios, Investec Asset Management and Old Mutual Alternative Investments.

South Africa
Absa Bank Ltd, African Bank Ltd, Albaraka, Bank Limited, BoE Private Clients, Bidvest Bank Limited, Capitec Bank Ltd, FirstRand Bank Ltd, Grindrod Bank, Habib Overseas Bank Limited, HBZ Bank Limited, Investec Bank Ltd, Mercantile Bank Limited, Nedbank Group Limited, Rand Merchant Bank, RMB Private Bank, South African Bank of Athens Limited, Sasfin Bank Ltd, Standard Bank of SA Ltd, Wesbank, Absa Bank Ltd, African Bank Ltd, Albaraka Bank Ltd, Bank of China, Bank of Taiwan (SA), Bidvest Bank, BNP Paribas, Sasfin Bank, Grindrod Bank.

Resources Movies
The Bank
The International
Inside Job (2010)
Trader (1987)
The Ascent of Money (2008)
Life and Debt
25 Million Pounds (1996)

Investment Banking: Valuation, Leveraged Buyouts, and Mergers and Acquisitions 

Financial Nigeria
The Banker
Financial Times

Africa Rise & Shine by Jim Ovia
Leaving the Tarmac by Aigboje Aig-Imoukhuede
Banking Summit
Lords of Finance: The Bankers Who Broke the World by Liaquat Ahamed

The End of Banking: Money, Credit, and the Digital Revolution by Jonathan McMillan

Defi and the Future of Finance by Ashwin Ramachandran, Campbell Harvey, and Joey Santoro

Banking Transformed
The Digital Global Banker
Banking on Digital Growth
Breaking Banks|Fintech Podcast,loan%20services%20to%20large%20corporations.,do%20not%20require%20higher%20education.,do%20not%20require%20higher%20education.,a%20computer%20or%20similar%20device.,OMO%20bills%2C%20and%20credits.%E2%80%9D,from%2062.7%20percent%20in%202019.,%20Ghana%20Area&sector=10010